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At  the  meeting  of  the  Board  of  Agriculture  held  at  Calais, 
a  resolution  was  passed,  urging  the  importance  to  our  agri- 
cultural literature  of  the  publication  of  surveys  of  the  differ- 
ent counties  in  the  State,  giving  brief  notes  of  their  history, 
industrial  resources  and  agricultural  capabilities  ;  and  direct- 
ing the  Secretary  to  procure  such  contributions  for  the  annual 
reports.  In  conformity  with  this  resolution,  and  also  as  car- 
rying out  the  settled  policy  of  the  Board  in  this  respect — 
evidences  of  which  are  found  in  the  publication  of  similar 
reports  in  previous  volumes — I  give  herewith  a  Survey  of  the 
County  of  Hancock,  written  by  a  gentleman  who  has  been  a 
member  of  the  Board  of  Agriculture,  uninterruptedly,  from 
its  first  organization,  and  who  is  in  every  way  well  fitted  for 
the  work,  which  he  has  so  well  performed.  It  was  originally 
published  in  the  Ellsworth  American,  during  the  summer  of 
1876,  but  has  been  especially  revised  for  the  present  report. 
In  many  respects  the  history  of  Hancock  County  is  a  most 
interesting  one ;  some  of  its  industries  are  important,  and 
quite  distinct  from  those  of  other  counties,  and  its  agricul- 
ture, though  not  so  important  as  that  of  some  other  sections 
in  the  State,  is  such  as  to  present  many  interesting  features 
and  practices.  The  survey  is  full  and  satisfactory,  and  will 
be  welcomed  by  the  people  of  the  State  in  the  complete  and 
permanent  form  in  which  it  is  now  given  to  them. 


Secretary  State  Board  of  Agriculture. 
Augusta,  Me. 



1.  Those  who  are  familiar  with  ancient  mythology,  will 
recollect  the  story  of  the  good  Isis  who  went  forth  wandering 
to  gather  up  the  parts  and  fragments  of  her  murdered  and 
scattered  Osiris,  fondly,  ytt  vainly  hoping  that  she  might 
recover  and  recombine  all  the  separate  parts,  and  once  more 
view  her  husband.  With  equal  assiduity,  has  the  writer  of 
this  Survey  been  for  years  engaged,  at  intervals,  in  collecting 
the  "scattered  fragments"  of  information  relating  to  Hancock 
County,  and  has  arranged  his  imperfect  materials  in  the  form 
which  they  now  exhibit. 

2.  Position. — This,  one  of  the  seaboard  counties  of  east- 
ern Maine,  occupies  a  geographical  position,  mainly  l)etween 
the '  parallels  of  43°  58^  and  45°  20'  north  latitude,  and 
between  (37°  47'  -and  fi8°  30'  west  longitude.  Its  northern 
parallel  crosses  the  State,  very  nearly  within  its  geographical 

Its  boundaries  are  Washington  county  upon  the  east,  the 
Atlantic  upon  the  south,  Penobscot  bay,  river  and  county 
upon  the  west  and  north.  It  is  of  very  irregular  shape. 
From  north  to  south  it  measures  about  eighty-five  miles,  and 
in  width  varies  from  six  to  forty  miles. 

3.  Divisions. — It  has  one  city,  thirty-one  incorporated 
towns,  and  twenty-nine  inland  and  island  townships.  There 
are  hundreds  of  islands  within  its  civic  limits,  the  largest  of 
which  is  the  most  conspicuous  of  any  upon  the  Avhole  Atlantic 


4.  Incorporated. — This,  the  fourth  county,  was  organized 
in  1789,  with  Penobscot  for  its  shire  town.  It  included 
portions  of  Penobscot  and  Waldo  counties,  and  extended 
northward  to  the  Canada  line.  No  county  in  Maine  has 
undergone  more  changes  in  territorial  limits.  In  1791,  a 
part  was  set  off  and  re-annexed  to  Lincoln.  In  1816,  a 
portion  was  taken  to  form  Penobscot  county.  In  1827,  a 
part  was  taken  off  for  Waldo.  In  1831,  a  change  was  made 
in  the  partition  line  between  Hancock  and  Washington.  In 
1844,  another  change,  and  in  1858  Greenfield  was  set  off  and 
annexed  to  Penobscot.  The  west  and  north  lines  are  still  as 
awkward  as  possible,  while  none  but  a  skilled  scientist  can 
project  the  zigzag  moulding  of  its  coast-line. 

5.  History. — The  early  history  of  Hancock  county,  as 
now  formed,  is  a  part  of  the  earliest  history  of  the  State,  and 
forms  an  unbroken  historical  chain,  extending  back  hundreds 
of  years  before  "  Columbus  crossed  the  ocean  blue."  Pre- 
sumptive,— if  not  conclusive — evidence  is  to  be  found  at 
Mt.  Desert,  that  the  Northmen  who  peopled  Greenland,  also 
visited  this  part  of  our  coast,  caught  fish  in  its  waters,  and 
cured  them  upon  its  shores.  Although  the  coast  was  fre- 
quently seen,  and  landings  made  by  European  voyagers  for 
some  six  hundred  years,  nothing  came  of  it  until  the  explora- 
tions of  Pring  in  1603,  and  Weymouth  and  De  Monts  in 
1605.  (There  is  a  tradition  that  Eosier  the  historian  of 
Weymouth's  expedition,  explored  Deer  Island  Thoroughfare, 
making  a  halt  at  a  bold  promontory  in  Brooksville,  known  as 
Cape  Rosier.)  They  found  the  country  inhabited  by  a  nation 
of  "  canoe-men,"  now  known  as  the  Tarratine  or  Penobscot 
Indians.  De  Monts,  who  seemed  to  know  of  the  "nine 
points  "  in  possession,  claimed  the  "  newly  "  discovered  coun- 
try, in  the  name  of  the  king  of  France,  in  true  Catholic  style, 
by  setting  up  a  cross  and  calling  the  country  "Acadia,"  by 
which  name  it  was  known  for  150  years,  or  until  Gen.  Wolfe, 
in  1759,  waved  his  banner  in  triumph  over  the  Plains  of 
Abraham.  The  year  following  De  Monts  claim,  Weymouth 
took  formal  possession  of  the  same  country,  in  the  name  of 


his  king,  James  I.  of  England.  Thus  tlic  two  leading  Powers 
of  Europe  became  adverse  claimants  to  our  soil.  France,  by 
virtue  of  explorations  of  Cartier  in  1534,  and  possession  of 
De  Monts  in  1602.  England,  by  virtue  of  discovery  of 
Cabot,  in  1498,  and  claims  of  Weymouth  in  1603.  The 
wars  which  these  counter  claims  occasioned,  kept  this  county 
an  almost  unbroken  Avilderness  during  the  provincial  history 
of  Maine. 

In  point  of  fact,  the  county  of  Hancock  was  a  part  of  the 
French  Province  of  Acadia,  for  a  period  of  180  years;  and 
France  did  not  fully  relinquish  her  claim  until  after  the  War 
of  the  Revolution.  The  first  ofiicial  efibrt  of  the  Govern- 
ment of  France  to  "enter  possession,"  was  a  patent  of  Acadia, 
granted  to  De  Monts,  which,  two  years  after  was  surrendered 
to  a  Catholic  French  lady  (Madame  De  Guercheville),  who 
was  desirous  of  making  the  experiment  of  converting  the 
natives  to  the  Catholic  faith.  She  immediately  sent  over  her 
agent  (Suassaye),  with  twenty-five  colonists,  to  take  posses- 
sion of  Acadia.  Suassaye  and  colony  landed  May  16th,  1613, 
at  Mt.  Desert,  built  a  fort,  erected  a  cross,  celebrated  mass, 
and  called  the  place  "St.  Sauveur,"  which  is  sujDposed  to  be 
the  locality  now  known  as  Ship  Harbor,  Tremont.  About 
the  "pool"  at  Somes'  Sound,  is  supposed  to  be  where  the 
French  missionaries,  Biard  and  Masse,  located  themselves  in 
1609.  Frenchman's  Bay  is  supposed  to  have  acquired  its 
name  from  a  peculiar  incident  which  occurred  to  a  French 
ecclesiastic  who  encamped  someAvhere  between  the  Union  and 
Narraguagus  rivers,  during  the  winter  of  1603.  At  Trenton 
Point  is  supposed  to  be  where  Madam  Deville  lived. 

The  first  P^nglish  possession  was  a  trading  post  at  Pentegoet 
(Castine),  in  1625-6,  which  soon  fell  into  the  hands  of  the 
French,  and  the  flag  of  France  floated  over  it  during  nearly 
the  whole  of  the  17th  century. 

The  appearances  of  the  old  French  settlements  have  been 
found  at  Castine,  Newbury  Neck,  Surry,  Oak  Point,  Tren- 
ton, East  Lamoine,  Crabtree's  Neck,  Hancock,  Butler  Point, 
Franklin,  Waukeag  Neck,  Sullivan  and  upon  the  "Desert 



Isle."     Not  until  after  the  fiiU  of  Quebec,  in  1759,  were  any 
permanent  English  settlements  made. 

6.  Land  Grants. — The  first  grants  of  land,  were  six 
townships  each  six  miles  square,  between  the  Penobscot  and 
Union,  then  known  as  the  Donaqua  River,  which  were  granted 
to  David  Marsh  et  als,  by  the  (general  Court  of  Massachu- 
setts, upon  certain  conditions,  one  of  which  was  that  they 
should  settle  each  township  with  sixty  Protestant  families, 
within  six  years.  These  grants  were  No.  1,  (Bucksport)  ; 
No.  2,  (Orland)  ;  No.  3,  (Penobscot)  ;  No.  4,  (Sedgwick)  ; 
No.  5,  (Bluehill)  ;  and  No.  6,  (Surry).  Six  other  townships 
east  of  the  Donaqua  River,  were  granted  upon  the  same 
terms.  But  three  of  these  are  in  this  county,  which  are  No. 
1,  (Trenton),  granted  to  Eben  Thorndike  et  als;  No.  2, 
(Sullivan),  to  David  Bean  et  als,  and  No.  3,  (Mt.  Desert)  to 
Gov.  Bernard.  The  whole  survey  Avas  made  by  Samuel 
Livermore,  and  as  six  of  the  townships  were  on  one  side  of 
the  river,  and  six  on  the  other  side,  the  circumstance  gave 
the  present  name  of  "Union  River." 

The  onerous  conditions  imposed  on  the  grantees,  in  this 
"forest  wild,"  could  not  be  fulfilled,  which  occasioned  a  deal 
of  uneasiness,  as  a  new  claimant  might  oust  the  occupant. 
In  1785,  Massachusetts  "quieted"  the  actual  settlers  in  each, 
.  a  hundred-acre  lot.  The  grant  of  these  several  townships 
was  made  in  1762.  One  of  the  conditions  in  each  grant  was, 
that  the  grantee  "yield  one-fifth  part  of  all  the  gold  and 
silver  ore  and  precious  stones  found  therein." 

These  grantees  individually  bound  themselves  in  a  pena^ 
bond  of  £50,  conditioned  to  lay  out  no  one  of  the  townships 
more  than  six  miles  in  extent,  on  the  banks  of  the  Penol)scot, 
or  on  the  sea  coast ;  to  build  sixty  dwelling-houses,  at  least 
18  feet  square ;  to  fit  for  tillage  300  acres  of  land,  erect  a 
meeting-house,  and  settle  a  minister.  There  were  reserved 
in  each  township  one  lot  for  parsonage  purposes,  another  for 
the  first  settled  minister,  a  third  for  Harvard  College,  and  a 
fourth  for  the  use  of  schools,  making  1,200  acres  in  each 
township,  reserved  for  public  uses. 


7.  Gregoire's  Claim. — About  the  year  1688,  the  King  of 
France  gave  to  one  Cadilliac,  a  grant  embracing  the  whole  of 
Mt.  Desert,  which  Cadilliac  held  till  1713,  styling  himself 
"Lord  of  Donaqua  and  Mt.  Desert."  After  the  War  of  the 
Revolution,  one  Gregoire  claimed  the  whole  island  in  right  of 
his  wife,  Maria  T.,  a  grand-daughter  of  Cadilliac.  Gov.  Ber- 
nard, to  whom  the  island  had  been  granted,  had  lost  his  title 
by  confiscation ;  but  to  his  son  John,  one-half  of  it  had  been 
restored ;  and  in  consideration  of  a  request  made  in  favor  of 
Gregoire's  claim,  by  Gen.  Lafayette,  Massachusetts  recog- 
nized it  as  valid,  lohich  is  the  only  French  claim  ever  sustained 
to  lands  i7i  Maine. 

To  indemnify  this  heir  of  Cadilliac  for  lands  included  in 
her  claim,  and  which  tlie  Government  had  disposed  of,  there 
were  quitclaimed  to  her  60,000  acres. 

This  tract  included  the  present  towns  of  Trenton  and 
Lamoine,  with  a  part  of  Sullivan,  Ellsworth,  Hancock,  Eden 
and  Mt.  Desert,  w^ith  the  islands  in  front  of  them.  Many  of 
the  present  settlers  hold  their  lands  under  old  French  titles. 
Many  of  the  original  titles  to  lands  are  acquired  from  Prov- 
ince grants  and  form  Indian  deeds. 

Gregoire  with  his  family  settled  in  Mt.  Desert ;  there  lived 
and  died,  and  himself  and  wife  were  buried  outside  of  the 
burial-ground  at  Hull's  Cove,  Eden.  Tradition  says  they 
were  so  buried  because  they  were  Catholics.  Some  of  the 
Gregoire  deeds  are  in  the  possession  of  the  writer. 

8.  Land  Lottery. — In  1786,  Massachusetts  attempted  a 
lottery  sale  of  fifty  townships,  between  the  Penobscot  and 
Passamaquoddy.  The  land  intended  to  be  sold,  w^as  repre- 
sented by  2,720  tickets,  the  price  of  each  ticket  $2.00. 
These  "lottery  townships,"  and  those  who  settled  upon  them, 
were  to  be  exempt  from  taxes  for  15  years.  Every  ticket 
was  a  prize  ticket ;  the  smallest  prize  being  a  half-mile  square, 
and  the  largest  a  six  mile  square.  There  were  five  managers, 
one  of  the  number  being  Leonard  Jarvis,  of  Surry.  On  the 
drawing  of  the  lottery,  it  was  found  that  but  437  tickets  were 


sold,  and  only  165,280  acres  drawn,  and  942,112  acres  re- 
mained inisold.  The  average  price  received  for  the  lands 
drawn  was  about  52  cents  per  acre.  The  lots  not  drawn,  and 
also  the  greater  part  of  the  prize  lots,  were  purchased  by 
William  Bingham,  of  Philadelphia,  a  man  of  immense  wealth. 
Mr.  Bingham  died  in  England  in  1803,  and  left  one  son  and 
two  daughters.  One  of  the  daughters  married  Alexan- 
der Baring,  of  London.  At  one  time  the  Bingham  heirs 
owned  in  Maine,  outside  of  the  lottery  purchase,  2,350,000 

The  lottery  townships  in  Hancock,  sold  to  Bingham,  -^vere 
Nos.  14,  15  and  16,  each  containing  23,040  acres.  The  con- 
veyance was  made  January  28th,  1793,  by  Samuel  Phillips, 
Leonard  Jarvis  and  John  Reed,  a  Committee  appointed  by 
the  General  Court  of  Massachusetts.  The  "consideration," 
named  in  the  deed,  is  "a  large  and  valuable  sum  of  money." 
Query — Were  not  the  "up-river"  townships  north  of  the  tier 
of  townships,  sold  to  Bingham,  included  in  the  lottery  scheme? 
In  1796,  Bingham  purchased  the  residue  of  the  Gregoire  grant. 
A  plan  of  the  60,000  acre  grant  to  Madame  De  Gregoire,  was 
made  by  Nathan  Jones  and  Samuel  Thompson,  and  a  survey 
of  the  same,  by  John  Peters,  was  completed  on  or  before 
January  8th,  1789. 

August  4,  1792,  Barthelemy  De  Gregoire,  after  "excepting 
out"  certain  "lots"  and  "tracts,"  sold  the  balance  of  his  grant, 
or  23,121  acres,  to  Henry  Jackson,  of  Boston,  for  £1,247, 
16  shillings.  Jackson,  July  9th,  1796,  sold  his  claim  to 
Bingham  for  $100. 

The  outlines  of  the  Gregoire  grant  are  thus  defined  in  the 
earliest  recorded  deeds  :  "A  tract  of  land  lying  on  the  main, 
on  each  side  of  the  Donaquec  river,  in  the  County  of  Hancock. 
Beginning  near  the  Sweedeland  Mill  dam,  on  the  Eastern  side 
of  Skillings  river,  thence  due  North  550  rods  to  Taunton  bay, 
there  crossing  a  cove  in  said  bay  432  rods  in  the  same  course, 
and  running  same  course  from  said  bay  460  rods,  for  the  N.  E. 
corner,  thence  7  miles  and  56  rods  to  Union  river,  a  due  West 
course,  crossing  the  river  and  continumg  2  miles,  172  rods, 


thence  South  68  East  to  Union  river,  crossing  the  same,  and 
continuing  176  rods  to  a  stake  in  Melatiah  Jordan's  field." 

In  the  conveyance  from  Gregoire  to  Jackson,  or  in  that 
from  Jackson  to  Bingliam,  among  the  lots  "excepted  out," 
are  100  acres  to  Mr.  Jennison,  100  to  James  Hopkins,  one- 
half  of  Trenton,  and  part  of  No.  8,  conveyed  to  Jean  Baptiste 
De  La  Roche  ;  Gregoire's  farm  ;  a  lot  at  North  East  Creek, 
Mt.  Desert,  lying  between  lots  of  Nicholas  Thomas  and  Eliza 
Higgins ;  450  acres  intended  for  the  town  of  Mt.  Desert ;  a 
lot  of  Col.  Jones,  a  settler  on  Great  Duck  Island,  and  8,333 
acres  of  No.  7,  granted  to  the  Beverly  Cotton  Manufactory. 

The  islands  "lying  in  front,"  granted  to  Barthelomy  De 
Gregoire,  and  his  wife  Maria  Theresa  De  la  Motta  Cadilace 
De  Gregoire,  and  which  were  a  part  of  the  Bingham  purchase, 
are  Bartlett's  island,  containing  1,414  acres  ;  Great  Cranberry 
island,  490  acres ;  Little  Cranberry,  73  acres ;  Sutton's,  74 
acres  ;  Bear,  9  acres  ;  Thomas,  64  acres  ;  Green,  44  acres  ; 
Great  Duck,  182  acres ;  Little  Duck,  59  acres ;  also,  two 
small  islands  of  6  acres  each.  Col.  John  Black,  an  English- 
man by  birth,  who  resided  at  Ellsworth  for  many  years,  was 
the  Bingham  heirs'  agent.  Messrs.  Hale  and  Emery  now  hold 
that  trust.  The  Bingham  lands  presented  an  inviting  field  for 
"smugglers,"  and  the  value  of  timber  pilfered  therefrom  is 

Sketches  of  Town  History. 

9 .  In  the  year  1787,  Penobscot,  the  first  town  in  the  county, 
and  the  49th  in  the  State,  was  incorporated.  The  Act  of  In- 
corporation was  entitled  "An  Act  for  Incorporating  a  certain 
plantation  in  the  county  of  Lincoln,  called  Majorbigwaduce, 
or  Number  Three,  into  a  town  by  the  name  of  Penobscot;" 
the  Bill  of  Enactment  was  signed  "  Artemas  Ward,  Speaker." 

The  several  town  histories  must  be  condensed  within  a  few 

lines.     We  shall  attempt  to  narrate  only  a  few  prominent 

events.    In  this  matter  of  town  history,  I  would  that  each  town 

in  our  county  emulate  the  example  of  Castine,  and  that  too  ere 

"  The  times  that  are  gone  by 
Are  a  sealed  book." 


10.  Penobscot. — Incorporated  (49th  town)  February  23, 
1787.  Population,  1,418.  Decennary  loss,  138.  Wealth, 
per  capita,  $148.  State  valuation,  $227,356;  United  States 
valuation,  $318,298.  Its  appellation  of  Penobscot,  is  from  the 
Indian  "Penobskeag,"  or  "Penopeauke,"  signifying  "rocky 
place."  It  was  a  part  of  the  district  of  ancient  "Pentagoet." 
In  the  Act  of  Incorporation  it  is  called  "Majorbigwaduce." 
It  was  Township  "Number  Three,"  in  the  grant  to  David 
Marsh  et  als.  It  is  situated  at  the  head  of  Northern  Bay,  one 
of  the  "great-coves"  of  the  Bagaduce  river  (Baggadoose),  or 
written  in  Indian  (Masi-anbaga-8-atoes-ch).  The  river  is  an 
arm  of  the  Penobscot,  the  "great  river  of  Nerumbega."  At 
first,  Penobscot  included  all  of  Castine,  and  the  westerly  part 
of  Brooksville.  The  first  survey  of  the  town  was  made  by 
John  Peters.  The  following  names  appear  among  its  earliest 
municipal  otficers  :  John  Lee,  Jeremiah  and  Daniel  Wardwell, 
John  and  Joseph  Perkins,  JohnWasson,  David  Hawses,  Elijah 
Littlefield,  Isaac  Parker,  and  Peltiah  Leach. 

The  subjoined  historic  data  are  from  the  pen  of  H.  B.  Ward- 
well  :  "The  first  settlers  within  the  present  limits  of  Penob- 
scot, were  Duncan  and  Findley  Malcom,  Daniel  and  Neil 
Brown.  They  were  Scotchmen,  and  being  loyalists  or  tories, 
left  for  St.  Andrews  when  the  English  evacuated  Majebigy- 
uduc,  in  1761.  Findley  Malcom  and  Daniel  Brown  married 
daughters  of  my  great-grandfather,  Daniel  Wardwell.  The 
first  permanent  settler  was  Charles  Hutchings,  in  1765.  The 
first  child  of  English  parents  was  Mary  Hutchings.  In  1765 
came  Isaac,  Jacob  Sparks  and  Daniel  Perkins,  Samuel  Averill 
and  Solomon  Littlefield. 

The  first  settler  in  Penobscot,  as  originally  incorporated, 
was  Eeuben  Gray,  in  1760.  To  him  a  daughter  (]\Iary)  was 
born,  Nov.  4,  1763,  and  a  son  (Samuel)  May  8,  1767.  In 
1765,  Gray  sold  out  to  Aaron  Banks,  and  took  up  the  farm 
now  occupied  by  Levi  Gray,  in  Sedgwick." 

Union  soldiers,   158 ;    State  aid,    $3,172 ;    town  bounty, 

;,782  ;  cost  per  recruit,  $170. 


11.  8edgio{ck. — Incorporated  (2-59,  that  is,  the  2d  in  the 
county  and  the  oOth  in  the  State),  January  12,  1789.  Popu- 
lation, 1,113.  Decennary  loss,  150.  AV^ealth,  per  capita,  $180. 
State  valuation,  $197,706.  United  States  valuation,  $285, G9G. 
Named  in  honor  of  INIaj.  Robert  Sedgwick.  Plantation  name 
''Naskeag."  By  the  earlier  adventurers  it  was  called  "Nasket." 
In  a  "census  of  the  people  ni  this  region,"  in  1688,  tw^o  French 
families,  of  eight  souls,  were  found  at  Naskeag  Point.  The 
first  permanent  settler  was  Andrew  Black,  in  1759.  Four 
years  after,  came  Goodwin  Reed,  John  and  Daniel  Black,  and 
two  years  later  Reuben  Gray  "moved  in"  from  Penobscot. 
The  first  white  child,  Elizabeth  (who  lived  to  a  great  age) , 
was  born  in  1759.  First  minister,  Daniel  Merrill.  The  de- 
scendants of  Reuben  Gray  are  exceedingly  numerous.  They 
preserve  i\\e,\Y prolijicness,  and  other  family  traits,  unimpaired 
down  to  the  latest  generation.  In  1817,  5,000  acres  were  cut 
oif  and  annexed  to  Brooksville.  In  1849,  about  8,800  acres 
were  taken  ofi*  to  form  the  town  of  Brooklin.  Benjamin,  its 
only  river,  is  little  else  than  a  spui-  of  Eggmoggin  Reach. 
Its  first  post  otfice  was  established  in  1812.  Now,  it  boasts  of 
a  telegraph  station.  Union  soldiers,  120;  State  aid,  $1,464; 
town  bounty,  $8,712  ;  cost  per  recruit,  $85. 

Prof.  Burns,  Superintendent  of  the  Burns  mine,  Ames- 
buiy,  has  taken  charge  of  the  Eggmoggin  mine,  Sedgwick, 
Me.  It  has  a  capital  of  $200,000,  and  reduction  works  have 
recently  been  erected  at  a  cost  of  $40,000.  There  are  500 
tons  of  ore  at  the  Philadelphia  mint  w^hich  will  average  $100 
a  ton. 

12.  ^??«e7n7?.— Incorporated  (3-62  town)  Jan.  30,  1789. 
Population,  1707.  Decennary  loss,  196.  Wealth,  per  capita, 
$225.  State  valuation,  $397,620.  U.  S.  valuation,  $572,- 
572.  First  settled  near  "Fire  Falls,"  April  7,  1762,  by 
Joseph  Wood  and  John  Roundy.  Next  settlers,  Nicholas 
Holt,  Ezekiel  Osgood  and  Nehemiah  Hinckley.  First  child, 
Jonathan  Darling,  born  in  1765  ;  second  child,  Edith  Wood, 
in  1766.  The  township  first  known  as  No.  5.  The  planta- 
tion name  was  "Newport."     The  town  takes  its  name  from  a 


majestic  hill,  which  rises  to  an  altitude  of  950  feet  above 
high-water  mark.  Congregational  Church  formed  in  1772 ; 
Baptist,  in  1806.  First  post  office  in  1795.  Jonathan 
Fisher,  settled  minister  from  1796  to  1837.  Eccentric  "Par- 
son" Fisher,  'tho'  dead,  his  good  name  liveth.  Academy 
incorporated  in  1803,  and  endowed  by  a  grant  or  half  of  No. 
23,  Washington  county.  This  grant  was  sold  in  1806,  for 
$6,252.  Of  this  sum,  $1,188  have  been  lost.  Has  a  social 
library  of  some  500  volumes.  In  1769,  the  settlers  voted 
to  raise  money  "  for  to  hire  a  person  for  to  preach  the  gospel 
to  us,  and  for  to  pay  his  board." 

Union  soldiers  in  the  war  of  the  Rebellion,  196  ;  State  aid, 
$3,038  ;  town  bounty,  $17,995  ;  cost  per  recruit,  $102. 

13.  Deer  Isle. — Incorporated  (4-63  town)  January  30, 
1789.  Population,  3,404.  Decennary  loss,  178.  Wealth, 
per  capita,  $120.  State  valuation,  $417,211.  U.  S.  valua- 
tion, $680,783.  First  visited  by  European  voyagers,  in 
1605.  The  abundance  of  deer  in  its  forests,  gave  it  its  name. 
First  settlement  commenced  near  what  is  now  known  as  the 
"Scott  Farm,"  by  William  Eaton,  in  1762.  First  church  in 
1773.  First  preacher.  Rev.  Mr.  Noble.  First  pastor,  Rev. 
Peter  Powers.  Rev.  Joseph  Brown,  a  dissenter,  installed  in 
1809.  Population  in  1790,  682.  First  white  child,  Timothy 
Billings,  born  May,  1764.  The  privations  of  the  settlers 
chiring  the  War  of  the  Revolution,  were  terrible. 

Union  soldiers,  314;  State  aid,  $6,294;  town  bounty, 
$59,128  ;  cost  per  recruit,  $208. 

14.  Trenton. — Incorporated  (5-65  town)  Feb.  16,  1789. 
Population,  678.  Wealth,  per  capita,  $175.  Derived  its 
name  from  Trenton,  N.  J.  First  settlements  by  English  set- 
tlers, about  1763.  Anterior  to  this,  French  settlements  were 
commenced  at  Trenton  and  Oak  Points.  This  town  was  first 
granted  by  Plymouth  Colony,  in  1752,  to  Eben  Thorndike 
et  als.  Massachusetts  confirmed  it  to  Paul  Thorndike  in  1785. 
Thompson's  and  Alley's  islands  are  within  its  limit.  In  1870 
it  was  divided  into  two  towns,  and  the  eastern  half  incorpo- 
rated as  Lamoine. 


State  valuation,  $260,729.  U.  S.  valuation,  $37544!9i 
Union  soldiers,  149 ;  State  aid,  $2,361 ;  town  houwty, 
$29,600;  cost  per  recruit,  $207. 

15.  Goiddshorough, — Incorporated  (6-66  town)  February 
16,1789.  Population,  1709.  Decennary  loss,  8.  State  val- 
uation, $224,690.  U.  S.  valuation,  $323,560.  Received  its 
corporate  name  in  honor  of  Robert  Gould,  one  of  the  original 
proprietors — Borough,  from  the  Anglo  Saxon  burgh,  a  town  ; 
in  En*yland,  a  town  that  sends  members  to  Parliament. 
There  were  squatters  here  as  early  as  1700.  The  first  set- 
tlers were  from  Saco  and  vicinity,  and  were  Libby,  Fernald, 
Ash  and  Willy.  The  first  male  child  was  Robert  Ash,  and 
the  first  female,  Mary  Libby.  The  first  post  office  in  1792. 
An  old  inhabitant  says:  "Nathan  Jones  and  Thomas  Hill 
settled  here  in  1764."  Maj.  Gen.  David  Cobb  of  Revolu- 
tionary fame,  one  of  Washington's  Aids,  and  afterwards  Judge 
of  the  Common  Pleas  Court  of  Hancock  County,  resided  here 
mau}^  years.  This  town,  embraces  Stave,  Jordan's,  Iron- 
bound,  Porcupines,  Horns,  Turtle,  and  Schoodic  Islands. 
That  part  of  No.  7,  known  as  "West  Bay  Stream,"  was 
annexed  February  26,  1870.  It  is  the  most  easterly  town  in 
the  county,  and  has  the  most  extensive  sea-coast.  On  Ash's 
Point  are  the  relics  of  an  old  French  fortification.  At  Grind- 
stone Point  is  an  immense  deposit  of  raetaphoric  or  silicious 
slate,  excellent  material  for  grindstones.  Its  hidden  mineral 
wealth  must  be  developed  by  some  geological  scientist,  not 
afraid  of  "  sur/-ru7i7iing ." 

Union  soldiers,  167 ;  State  aid,  $2,584 ;  town  bounty, 
$27,460  ;  cost  per  recruit,  $179. 

16.  Sullivan. — ^Incorporated  (7-67  town)  February  16, 
1789.  Area,  17,500  acres.  Population,  796.  Wealth,  per 
capita,  $195.  Named  in  honor  of  Capt.  Daniel  Sullivan. 
Indian  name,  "  Waukeag"  (a  seal),  and  also  called,  previous 
to  incorporation,  "New  Bristol."  First  settlement  com- 
menced in  1762,  by  Sullivan,  Simpson,  Bean,  Gordon,  Bhiis- 
dell  and  Card.     Embraces  eight  islands,   viz :     Capital   A, 

Bean's,  Dram,  Preble's,  Bragdon,  Burnt,  Black,  and  Seward. 


In  the  Revolution,  forty  families  here  were  reduced  to  twenty. 
This  township  was  granted  to  David  Bean  ;  the  king  refused 
to  confirm  it,  and  the  settlers  were  quieted  in  1803,  by 
Massachusetts,  in  100  acres,  on  payment  of  $5.00  each.  At 
Waukeag  are  evidences  of  an  old  French  settlement.  At  the 
commencement  of  the  Revolutionary  War,  nearly  two-thirds 
of  the  settlers  moved  back  to  York.  Nine  thousand  acres  in 
this  town  were  donated  to  Bowdoin  College.  In  1841,  an 
earthern  pot,  containing  somewhat  more  than  $400,  Avas  dug 
up.  They  were  French  coins,  bearing  date  of  1725.  In 
1875,  human  bones  were  dug  up,  supposed  to  be  French  or 

Union  soldiers,  80;  State  aid,  $2,210;  town  bounty, 
$14,459  ;  cost  per  recruit,  $208.  Decennary  loss,  76  ;  State 
valuation,  $14(3,954;  U.  S.  valuation,  $204,414. 

17.  Mt.  Desert. — Incorporated  (8-68  town)  February  17, 
1789.  Population,  918.  Decennary  gain,  1.  Wealth,  per 
capita,  $175.  State  valuation,  $158,069.  U.  S.  valuation, 
$228,619.  Its  corporate  name  is  supposed  to  be  from  "  De 
Monts  Desert  Isle."  It  has  gained  currency  that  the  island 
was  known  to  the  Northmen  as  early  as  1008.  First  occu- 
paucy  by  French  in  1604.  Peter  Biard  and  Enemond  ]\Iasse 
were  here  in  1609.  Madame  De  Guerchville's  colony  came 
in  1613.  In  1688,  an  Euglish  settler  named  Hinds,  wife  and 
four  children,  lived  here.  The  first  permanent  settlement 
was  by  Abraham  Somes  and  James  Richardson,  in  1761. 
The  first  child,  George  Richardson,  was  born  in  August, 
1793.  The  first  marriage,  August  9,  1774.  Became  a  plan- 
tation in  1776.  This  sea-cradled  island  is  distinguished  as 
the  place  where  the  first  Jesuit  Mission  in  America  was 
established.  Its  topography  is  a  natural  curiosity.  Contrary 
to  the  ordinary  IcA'^el  formation  of  islands,  it  is  thrown  up 
into  huge  granite  mountains  to  the  number  of  thirteen.  The 
altitude  of  Green  Mountain  is  1,762  feet;  of  Sargent's  Mt., 
1,098  feet;  Brown's,  880  feet;  Mt.  Robinson,  680  feet; 
Dog,  680  feet;  and  Carter's  660  feet.  In  1838,  Bartlett's, 
Hardwood  and  Robinson's  islands,  were  set  off"  and  incorpb- 


rated  into  "  Seaville."  Christopher  Bartlett  first  settled  on 
Bartlett's  Island  about  1770.  The  Act  incorporating  Sea- 
ville, was  repealed  February  24,  1859.  Hartlett's  Island 
was  annexed  to  Mt.  Desert.  The  town  has  been  twice 
divided,  Eden  taking  off  22,000  acres,  and  Tremont  half  of 
what  remained. 

Union    soldiers,    161;     State    aid,   $1,455;    town  bounty, 
$14,722;  cost  of  recruit,  $160. 

18.  Buchsport. — Incorporated  (9-79  town)  June  27, 
1792.  Population,  3,433.  Decennary  loss,  121.  Wealth, 
per  capita,  $360.  State  valuation,  $1,219,881.  U.  S.  val- 
uation, $1,756,628.  This  was  township  No.  1,  in  the  grant 
to  Marsh.  It  was  incorporated  as  Buckstown,  and  was  not 
changed  to  Bucksport  till  1817.  The  township  was  surveyed 
by  William  Chamberlain,  in  1762.  Col.  Jonathan  Buck, 
from  Haverhill,  Mass.,  commenced  the  first  settlement  in 
1764.  For  him  the  town  was  named.  The  next  year  Laugh- 
lin  McDonald  and  his  son  Roderick,  took  up  lots.  In  1766-7, 
Asahel  Harriman,  Jonathan  Frye,  Benjamin  Page,  Phineas 
Ames,  and  Ebenezer  Buck  came.  The  first  preacher  was 
Rev.  John  Kenney,  in  1795.  First  settled  minister.  Rev. 
Mighill  Blood,  in  1803.  In  17 —  the  British  burnt  a  part  of 
the  town.  The  post  office  established  in  1799.  Al)out  1804 
the  Gazette  of  Maine  was  printed.  In  1806,  "Penobscot 
Bank"  was  established,  and  continued  six  years.  The  ill- 
treatment  which  the  inhabitants  received  from  the  British  in 
1776-7-8,  drove  many  families  away,  and  they  employed 
Indian  guides  to  pilot  them  through  the  woods  to  Kennebec. 
Some  of  them  returned  in  1784. 

Union  soldiers,  419;  State  aid,  $7,345;  town  bounty, 
$56,618  ;  cost  per  recruit,  $150. 

19.  Castine. — Incorporated  (10-105  town)  February  10, 
1796.  Popuhition,  1,303.  Decennary  gain,  53.  Wealth, 
per  capita,  $335.  State  valuation,  $461,343.  U.  S.  valua- 
tion, $664,333.  The  History  of  this  "  old  town,"  has  been 
prepared  and  published  by  G.  A.  Wheeler,  M.  D.  It  is  an 
int(  resting  and  trustworthy  compilation.     The  town  appro- 


priated  $350  therefor.  Castine  perpetuates  the  name  of  Baron 
de  St.  Castin,  a  French  nobleman,  who  estabhshed  a  residence 
here  in  1667.  It  has  a  traditionary  history  running  back  to 
1555.  Under  the  name  of  "Pentagoet,"  it  became  known  to 
the  English  settlers  of  New  England,  about  1626.  It  has 
never  been  without  a  garrison  from  1630  to  1783.  It  has 
been  successively  possessed  by  the  Indians,  French,  Dutch 
and  English.  Five  naval  engagements  have  taken  place  on 
the  bosom  of  its  harbor.  One  of  those  engagements,  called 
the  "Penobscot  expedition,"  is  said  to  be  the  most  disastrous 
issue  our  arms  have  ever  experienced.  The  first  permanent 
English  settlements  made  within  the  present  limits  of  Castine, 
were  in  1760,  by  Aaron  Banks,  William  Stover,  and  Reuben 
Gray.  "Old  Kit,"  who  died  in  Brooksville,  at  the  advanced 
age  of  104  years,  was  born  upon  the  Dea.  Hatch  farm.  The 
first  child,  William  Stover,  was  born  upon  the  farm  where 
E.  H.  Buker  lives,  in  November,  1764.  In  1797,  one 
Mariam  Freethy,  a  shiftless  person,  was  warned  to  leave  the 
place — they  had  "tramps"  in  those  days.  The  first  corporate 
town  meeting  was  held  at  the  house  of  Jacob  Orcut,  at 
Orcut's  Harbor.  During  the  decennial  period,  ending  1850, 
its  per  capita  wealth,  with  one  exception  (New  Haven), 
exceeded  that  of  any  other  tovrn  in  the  United  States.  For 
many  years  it  was  the  Fishing  Emporium  of  Maine.  The 
repeal  of  the  Fishing  Bounty  Act,  and  losses  by  rebel  cruisers, 
have  almost  completed  its  commercial  ruin.  Its  loss  of  tax- 
able estates,  from  1860  to  1870,  was  nearly  40  per  cent.  It 
was  the  shire  town  from  1796  to  1838. 

Union  soldiers,  157 ;  State  aid,  $7,627 ;  town  bounty, 
$15,834  ;  cost  per  recruit,  $149. 

20.  Eden. — Incorporated  (11-107  town)  February  23, 
1796.  Population,  1,195.  Decennary  loss,  52.  Wealth, 
per  capita,  $175.  State  valuation,  $196,499.  U.  S.  valua- 
tion, $282,955.  Regarding  its  appellation  (Eden),  the  pre- 
sumption is  in  favor  of  its  being  so  named  for  Richard  Eden, 
an  early  English  author.  There  is  a  tradition  that  its  natural 
beauties  suggested  its  name.      It  is  "impossible  to   disen- 


tangle  "  the  ancient  history  of  that  portion  of  the  "  Coaste 
Hills,"  now  comprised  in  the  present  town.  Its  early  history 
and  that  of  Mt.  Desert,  are  inseparable.  At  Hull's  Cove, 
Gregoire  and  his  wife  lived,  died,  and  were  buried.  They 
died  in  1610,  and  were  buried  outside  of  the  grave-yard, 
without  i3riest,  book,  or  cross.  Tradition  runneth,  that  being 
Catholics,  Protestant  prejudice  would  not  allow  them  a  final 
resting  place  inside.  The  first  English  settlement  was  in 
1763,  by  two  families  named  Thomas  and  Higgins.  We 
excerpt  the  following  from  the  first  marriage  record  :  "  This 
is  to  certify  that,  inasmuch  as  there  is  no  Lawful  Authority 
within  30  miles  of  this  place,  whereby  we  can  be  married  as 
the  Law  directs,  We  do  promise  in  the  presence  of  God  and 
the  anofels  *  *  *  *  to  cleave  to  each  other  so  long  as 
God  shall  continue  both  our  lives."  It  proved  a  happy  and 
fruitful  union. 

Union  soldiers,  103;  State  aid,  $2,356 ;  town  bounty, 
$17,351  :  cost  per  recruit,  $191. 

21.  Or?an(Z.— Incorporated  (12-124  town)  February  12, 
1800.  Population,  1,701.  Decennary  loss,  86.  Wealth, 
per  capita,  $280.  State  valuation,  $374,390.  U.  S.  valua- 
tion, $539,121.  Anciently  called  "  Alamasook,"  next  "East- 
ern River."  It  was  No.  2  in  the  grant  to  David  Marsh.  Its 
name  is  supposed  to  be  derived  from  "  Oar-land  " — an  oar 
having  been  found  upon  its  shores  by  the  first  settler,  who 
was  Joseph  Gross,  in  1764.  Ebenezer  Gross  came  in  1765, 
and  Joseph  Viles  in  1766.  Viles  built  the  first  framed  house. 
Zachariah  Gross,  the  first  child,  was  born  1766.  The  first 
road  was  laid  out  in  1771.  The  first  mills  were  built  by 
Calvin  Turner,  in  1773.  In  1790  it  had  290  souls.  In  1775, 
the  men  of  this  plantation  and  those  of  No.  1,  formed  them- 
selves into  a  military  company,  and  also  chose  a  Committee 
of  Safety. 

Union  soldiers,  195;  State  aid,  $5,786;  town  bounty, 
$14,855  ;  cost  per  recruit,  $164. 

22.  Ellsworth. — Once  called  "  New  Bowdoin,"  comprising 
No.  7,  a  part  of  No.  6,  and  the  northwest  part  of  Trenton, 


was  incorporated  February  26,  1800.  Population,  5,257. 
Decennary  gain,  599.  Wealth,  per  capita,  $235.  State  val- 
uation, $1,233,199.  U.  S.  valuation,  $1,775,813.  Benjamin 
Milliken  is  said  to  be  the  first  settler,  and  that  he  settled 
here  in  1763.  Says  the  "oldest  inhabitant,"  "  the  first  meal 
cooked  in  Ellsworth  by  a  white  woman,  was  by  a  daughter 
of  Milliken's,  the  cooking  being  done  by  the  side  of  a  huge 
boulder,  which  stood  where  Dutton's  store  now  is."  The 
next  settlements  were  by  Meltiah  Jordan,  Benjamin  Joy, 
Colonel  eJones,  George  Lord,  Nathaniel  and  John  Jellison. 
Others  soon  came  and  made  their  "clearings."  In  twenty 
years  it  had  a  population  of  992.  First  minister.  Rev.  J. 
Urquhart,  in  1785.  Rev.  Peter  Nourse,  ordained  in  1812. 
Became  the  shire  town  in  1838,  and  a  city  in  1809.  All  of 
the  buildings  now  standing  south  of  Main  street,  have  been 
built  within  sixty  years.  The  first  framed  house  is  in  the 
rear  of  Clark  &  Davis'  store.  According  to  "ye  olden 
custom,"  which  was,  that  at  a  "raising"  some  citizen  bold, 
bestride  the  ridge-pole,  name  the  building,  and  break  a  bottle 
of  rum,  which  in  this  instance  was  as  follows  : 

"This  is  a  good  frame, 
It  deserves  a  good  name, 
What  shall  we  call  it? 
Josh  Moore's  folly, 
And  Pond's  delight. 
The  lawyer  has  got  it, 
It  looks  like  a  fright." 

The  first  children  born  were  Edward  and  Susan  Beal. 
Ellsworth  has  more  than  eight  times  the  territorial  area  of 
Castine.  It  has  a  gross  water  power  of  6,600  horse,  or 
240,000  spindles,  the  equivalent  in  working  energy  of  2,240 
population.  It  was  named  in  memory  of  Oliver  Ellsworth, 
one  of  the  delegates  to  the  National  Constitutional  Con- 

Union  soldiers,  653  ;  State  aid,  $22,946 ;  town  bounty, 
$49,600  ;  cost  per  recruit,  $111. 

33.  Surry. — Incorporated  (14-147  town)  June  21,  1803. 
Population,  1,242.    Decennary  loss,  77.    Wealth,  per  capita, 


$172.  State  valuation,  $209,137.  U.  S.  valuation,  $271,157. 
Named  by  the  Jarvis  proprietors,  for  Surrey,  England.  This 
was  Township  No.  6,  in  the  grant  to  Marsh.  First  occupied 
by  French  at  Newbury  Neck.  The  first  English  settlers 
were  Symonds,  Weymouth,  and  James  Flye.  Symonds 
"squat"  upon  the  farm  now  owned  by  Samuel  Wasson,  and 
Weymouth  upon  the  Point  which  bears  his  name,  a  pai't  of 
the  old  Joy  farm,  now  in  possession  of  G.  W.  Hutchings. 
The  next  settlers  were  John  Patten,  Hopkinson,  and  Andrew 
Flood,  Wilbrahara  Swett,  Matthey  Ray,  Samuel  Joy,  Isaac 
Lord,  Hezekiah  Coggins,  and  Leonard  Jarvis.  Mr.  Jarvis 
was  a  Representative  in  Congress  from  1831  to  1837.  While 
in  Congress,  he  proposed  to  vindicate  his  honor,  by  fighting 
a  duel  with  F.  O.  J.  Smith. 

Up  to  the  year  1820,  about  13,000  acres  had  been  alienated, 
and  were  held  under  grants  to  settlers  and  "quiet  possession" 
titles.  The  quantity  of  land  remaining,  was  purchased  by  the 
Jarvis'.  In  1840,  "the  Jarvis  farm"  was  the  best  cultivated 
and  the  most  productive  farm  in  the  county.  Dry  rot  is  its 
only  product  now.  In  1800,  Surry  included  that  poi-tion  of 
Ellsworth  known  as  ward  5.  In  1829,  it  was  re-annexed  to 
Ellsworth.  In  this  matter,  the  agent  for  Surry  has  been 
charged  with  consummate  perfidy.  In  1790,  it  had  a  popula- 
tion of  239.  In  1874,  a  small  quantity  of  silver  coin  was 
found  at  Weymouth  Point. 

Union  soldiers,  135 ;  State  aid,  $2,912 ;  town  bounty, 
$22,948  ;  cost  per  recruit,  $191. 

24.  Broohsville. — Incorporated  (5-222  town)  June  13, 
1817.  Population,  1,275.  Decennary  loss,  152.  Wealth, 
per  capita,  $190.  State  valuation,  $198,998.  U.  S.  valua- 
tion, $286,557.  Named  in  honor  of  Governor  Brooks.  It 
took  from  Sedgwick  an  eighth,  ajid  from  Castine  and  Penob- 
scot each  a  fifth  of  their  taxal)le  property.  It  was  a  part  of 
ancient  Pentagoet.  Its  early  history  is  almost  entirely  em- 
bodied in  that  of  Castine  and  Penobscot.  The  first  explora- 
tion was  by  James  Rozier  in  1605.  First  settled  in  1777,  by 
John  Wasson,  Samuel  Wasson  and  David  Hawes,  Revolution- 


ary  soldiers.  They  found  three  squatters  here,  a  Mr.  Roax, 
Eben  Leland  and  Arch  Haney.  About  1780,  William  Roax 
and  Elisha  Blake  settled  upon  the  "Cape."  The  first  white 
child  born  within  the  present  town  limits  was  Mary  Grindle, 
May,  17()5.  She  was  born  upon  the  farm  now  owned  by  G. 
M.  Farnham.  Upon  Henry's  Point,  and  near  Oliver  Bake- 
man's,  the  British  erected  6-gun  batteries,  in  1779.  The 
''tooth  of  time"  has  nearly  obliterated  both.  The  first  cor- 
porate town  meetmg  was  held  in  John  Bray's  house. 

Union  soldiers,  130;  State  aid,  $3,621;  town  bounty, 
$22,086  ;  cost  per  recruit,  $195. 

25.  Franklin. — Incorporated  (16  town)  January  24, 1825. 
Population,  1,042.  Decennary  gain,  38.  Wealth,  per  capita, 
$165.  State  valuation,  $123,056.  U.  S.  valuation,  $177,310. 
Originally,  Phmtation  No.  9.  Named  in  honor  of  Dr.  Frank- 
lin. First  occupied  by  the  French,  at  Butler's  Point.  Moses 
Butler  and  Mr.  Wentworth  came  here  in  1764,  and  are  sup- 
posed to  be  the  first  English  settlers.  The  next  settlers  were 
Joseph  Bragdon,  Mr.  Hardison,  Mr.  Hooper  and  A])ram 
Domiell.  This  is  one  of  the  eight  towns  in  the  county  which 
shows  a  gain  of  population  during  the  last  decennial  period. 
On  Butler's  Point  are  apple  trees  upwards  of  100  years  old. 

Union  soldiers,  120;  State  aid,  $5,804;  town  bounty, 
$12,280  ;  cost  per  recruit,  $150. 

26.  Hancock. — Incorporat(?d  (17  town)  February  21,  1828. 
Population,  974.  Decennary  gain,  49.  Wealth,  per  capita, 
$170.  State  valuation,  $163,904.  U.  S.  valuation,  $236,621. 
Formed  from  parts  of  Sullivan,  Trenton,  and  No.  8.  The 
pioneer  settlers  were  Oliver  Wooster,  Agreen  Crabtree, 
Thomas  McFarland,\,  Thomas  Roger,  and  Joseph  Googins. 
They  came  in  1764-5.  Philip  Hodgkins,  Reuben  Abbot, 
Thomas  Moon  and  Richard  Clark,  came  in  1766-7-8.  There 
are  two  mill-streams,  which  glory  in  the  names  of  "Egypt," 
and  "Kilkenny." 

Union  soldiers,  115;  State  aid,  $3,054;  town  bounty, 
116,900  ;  cost  per  recruit,  $173. 


27.  Cranberry  Isles. — Incorporated  (18  town)  March  16, 
1830.  Population,  350.  Decennary  gain  4.  Wealth,  per  capita, 
$255.  State  valuation,  $61,515.  U.  S.  valuation,  $87,980. 
Named  for  its  extensive  cranberry  marsh,  200  acres  in  extent. 
Its  early  history  must  be  chiefly  sought  in  connection  with 
that  of  the  parent  town,  Mt.  Desert.  The  first  English  settler 
within  the  present  limits  of  the  town,  was  John  Eoberson, 
who,  about  1761,  settled  upon  the  island  which  bears  his  name. 
The  first  settlers  upon  Cranberry  Isle  were  supposed  to  be  a 
Mr.  Bunker  and  William  Foss.  The  first  selectmen  were 
Samuel  Hadlock,  Enoch  Spurling  and  Joseph  Moore. 

Union  soldiers,  27  ;  State  aid,  $162  ;  town  bounty,  $6,095  ; 
cost  per  recruit,  $232. 

28.  Aurora. — Incorporated  February  1, 1831.  Area  23,040 
acres.  Population,  212.  Wealth,  per  capita,  $155.  Derived 
its  name  from  Aurora,  goddess  of  morning.  Its  first  settlers 
were  four  brothers,  Samuel,  Benjamin,  David  and  Roswell 
Silsby,  who  came  here  in  1805.  For  some  years  they  had,  as 
there  were  no  roads,  to  carry  their  grain  on  their  backs,  seven 
or  eight  miles  to  have  it  ground.  This  was  one  of  the  "lottery" 
townships,  and  was  incorporated  as  Plantation  No.  27,  in  1822. 
The  "  Whale's  Back,"  one  of  those  formations  known  as  "horse- 
backs," is  in  this  town.  The  "air-line  road"  passes  over  it 
for  a  distance  of  three  and  one-half  miles.  Decennary  loss,  65. 
State  valuation,  $32,052.     U.  S.  valuation,  $56,154. 

Union  soldiers,  27  ;  State  aid,  $20  ;  town  bounty,  $1,983  ; 
cost  per  recruit,  $117. 

29.  Amherst. — It  was  set  off"  from  the  plantation  of  Maria- 
ville,  in  1822,  and  incorporated  on  the  5th  of  February,  1831. 
Its  name  was  suggested  from  Amherst,  N.  H.  It  is  thought 
that  men  began  to  come  in  and  fell  trees  in  it  as  early  as  1802 
or  1803.  Among  the  first  that  came,  were  Mr.  Chapman,  Mr. 
Shuniway,  Mr.  Whitman,  John  Barker,  John  Giles,  Thomas 
Ilarpworth  and  Mr.  Graves.  In  1805  Capt.  Goodell  Silsby 
came  in  from  Charleston,  N.  H.  In  1806  or  1807  his  parents 
came  and  took  up  the  lots  now  known  as  "The  Old  Silsby 


The  first  and  only  meeting-house  was  erected  in  1844. 
Three  men,  one  living  in  Amherst  and  two  in  Aurora,  Iniilt 
it.  The  first  settlers  endured  many  hardships.  Some  came 
into  Ellsworth,  in  a  vessel,  and  from  that  point  found  their 
way  hither  by  following  a  spotted  line  on  the  trees.  Some 
carried  their  grain  twelve  miles  on  their  backs  to  grist  mill, 
and  then  home  again. 

This  is  the  26th  town.  Population,  350.  Decennary  loss, 
34.  Wealth,  per  capita,  $165.  Area  23,040  acres.  State 
valuation,  $57,276.     U.  S.  valuation,  $82,477. 

Union  soldiers,  43;  State  aid,  $522;  town  bounty,  $5,300  ; 
cost  per  man,  $142. 

30.  Waltham. — Incorporated  (21  town)  January  29,  1833. 
Population,  366.  Wealth,  per  capita,  $160.  Derives  its  name 
from  Waltham,  Mass.  This  town  was  carved  out  of  Maria- 
ville.  Its  first  settlers  were  Samuel  Ingalls,  Eben  Jordan, 
Lebbeus  and  Eben  Kingman,  who  settled  here  in  1805. 
Webb's  l)rook,  the  outlet  of  Webb's,  Scammon's,  Abram's 
and  Molasses  ponds,  afibrds  a  very  valuable  water  power, 
which,  if  properl}^  utilized,  would  build  up  a  thriving  village. 
Decennary  loss,  8.  State  valuation,  $44,092.  U.  S.  valua- 
tion, $63,492. 

Union  soldiers,  37;  State  aid,  $1,094;  town  bounty, 
$6,194  ;  cost  per  recruit,  $194. 

31.  Otis. — First  occupanc}^  1805.    Incorporated  (22  town) 

March  19,  1835.     Named  in  honor  of Otis,  a  proprietor  ; 

name,  prior  to  incorporation,  New  Trenton.  Population,  245. 
Wealth,  per  capita,  $110.  First  settlers,  Isaac  Frazier,  N.  M. 
Jellison,  James  Gilpatrick  and  Allan  Milliken.  Decennary 
gain,  36.  State  valuation,  $26,407.  U.  S.  valuation,  $38,636. 

Union  soldiers,  35  ;  State  aid,  $470  ;  town  bounty,  $4,975  ; 
cost  per  recruit,  $155. 

32.  Mariaville. — First  occupancy,  1802.  Inqorporated 
(23  town)  February  29,  1836.  Named  in  honor  of  Maria,  a 
daughter  of  Bingham.  Name  prior  to  incorporation,  Tilden. 
Population,  369.  Wealth,  per  capita,  $180.  First  settlers, 
Mr.  Fabrick,  Seth  Alcott,  B.  and  D.  Eppes,  James  Hapworth 


and  Elisha  Goodwin.  For  years,  all  "up  river"  was  known 
as  Mariaville.  It  has  been  reduced  to  its  present  unshapely 
limits  by  taking  off  Aurora,  Amherst  and  Waltham.  Decen- 
nary loss,  89.  State  valuation,  $65,742.  U.  S.  valuation, 

Union  soldiers,  43  ;  State  aid,  $914  ;  town  bounty,  $6,710  ; 
cost  per  recruit,  $177. 

33.  Dedliam. — Incorporated  (24  town)  February  1,  1837. 
Population,  458.  Decennary  loss,  161.  Wealth,  per  capita, 
$230.  State  valuation,  $94,338.  U.  S.  valuation,  $135,898. 
Was  a  part  of  No.  8.  Named  for  Dedham,  Mass.  First  set- 
tled in  1810,  by  Nathan  Phillips.  The  "colony"  settlement, 
for  years,  was  known  as  "New  Boston."  The  "colonists" 
were  accused  of  "putting  on  airs."  It  is  a  "hard  road  to 
travel."  Its  highways  are  very  expensive,  as  the  Bangor  and 
EllsAvorth  mail  stages  pass  over  several  miles  of  its  road, 
1,304  times  a  year. 

Union  soldiers,  56  ;  State  aid,  $1,046  ;  town  bounty,$3,000  ; 
cost  per  recruit,  $72. 

34.  Easlhrook. — Incorporated  (25  town)  February  8, 
1837.  Population,  187.  Decennary  loss,  34.  Wealth,  per 
capita,  $225.  State  valuation,  $30,288.  U.  S.  valuation, 
$46,574.  Area,  23,040  acres.  This  was  Plantation  No.  15. 
Derived  its  name  from  its  east-brook  branches  of  Union  river. 
The  first  settlements  were  made  in  1800,  by  Joseph  Parsons, 
Robert  Dyer,  Samuel  Bragdon,  and  John  E.  Smith.  Joseph 
Parsons  built  the  first  mill,  and  first  framed  house.  The  first 
child  was  Frances  Usher  Parsons.  This  is  one  of  the  three 
square  towns. 

Union  soldiers,  23.  State  aid,  $501.  Town  bounty, 
$4,077.     Cost  per  man,  $194. 

35.  Tremont. — Detached  from  Mt.  Desert  and  incorpo- 
rated (26  town)  June  3,  1848,  under  the  name  of  Mansel, 
but  in  Auijust  of  the  same  year  its  name  was  chanijed  to 
Tremont.  Population,  1,822.  Wealth,  per  capita,  $145. 
Derives  its  name  from  the  Latin  of  three  mountains,  viz.  : 


Western,  Defile,  and  Dog  mountains.  Tinker's,  Moose, 
Hardwood,  Gott's  and  Langley's  islands  are  within  its  limits. 
The  original  titles  are  chiefly  ancient  French  grants.  Gott's 
Island,  named  for  Daniel  Gott,  has  ten  'families,  and  forms 
a  school  district.  State  valuation,  $262,353.  U.  S.  valua- 
tion, $377,784.     Decennary  gain,  54. 

Union  soldiers,  160.  State  aid,  $2,152.  Town  bounty, 
$30,053.     Cost  per  recruit,  $20. 

36.  Brooklin. — Detached  from  Sedgwick  and  incorpo- 
rated (27  town)  June  9,  1849,  under  the  name  of  Fort 
Watson.  One  month  after,  its  name  Avas  changed  to  Brooklin. 
Population,  966.  Wealth,  per  capita,  $200.  A  Mr.  Black 
was  the  first  permanent  settler.  His  daughter,  Elizabeth, 
the  first  child,  lived  to  the  age  of  102  years.  In  1688,  there 
were  two  families  at  Naskeag,  Chas.  St.  Robins,  and  La 
Flour.  Naskeag  Point  is  frequently  mentioned  in  ancient 
documentary  history.  Decennary  loss,  77.  State  valuation, 
$186,899.     U.  S.  valuation,  $269,124. 

Union  soldiers,  97.  State  aid  $1,287.  Town  bounty, 
$15,520.     Cost  per  recruit,  $119. 

37.  Verona. — Incorporated  (28  town)  February  11, 
1861.  Area,  5,600  acres.  Population,  352.  Wealth,  per 
capita,  $160.  First  mentioned  as  the  Island  of  Lett.  Pripr 
to  incorporation  was  known  as  Orphan  Island  and  Wetmore 
Isle.  It  was  formerly  a  part  of  Prospect,  and  for  many 
years  a  part  of  Bucksport.  It  originally  belonged  to  the 
"  Waldo  Patent."  Fell  into  the  possession  of  an  orphan  girl, 
hence  the  name  of  Orphan  island.  It  was  finally  purchased 
by  Wetmore.  In  1763,  there  were  three  families  on  this 
island,  and  not  a  settler  above  there  on  the  river.  Verona 
was  named  for  a  town  in  Italy,  on  the  Po  river.  State  val- 
uation, $51,075.     U.  S.  valuation,  $72,348. 

Union  soldiers,  19.  State  aid,  $1,621.  Town  bounty, 
$7,309.     Cost  per  recruit,  $438. 

38.  Lamoine. — Set  ofl'  from  Trenton  and  incorporated 
(29  town)  February  11,  1870.  Area  about  11,000  acres. 
Population,   612.     Wealth,  per  capita,   $2.32.      Named   for 


Lamoine,  an  early  French  resident,  who  at  one  time  owned 
a  hirge  tract  of  hind  west  of  Skilling-s  river.  A  coh)ny  of 
French  made  a  transient  settlement  on  Trenton  Point,  at  an 
early  day.  Two  of  the  colonists,  Delaittre  and  Desisles,  be- 
came permanent  residents.  Hon.  ^y.  King  says,  "the  first 
settlement  at  Lamoine,  formerly  Trenton,  was  made  in  Sep- 
tember, 1774,  at  Gillpartric's  Point  by  Gillpartric,"  which  is 
corroborated  by  Capt.  Berry,  who  adds,  "Capt.  Isaac  Gill- 
partric, with  six  sous  and  two  daughters,  fromBiddeford,  and 
a  son-in-law,  Edward  Berry,  from  Londonderry,  N.  H.,  were 
the  first  settlers."  Both  these  gentlemen  say,  "the  French 
came  subsequent  to  Gillpatric."  If  so,  from' whence  came  the 
"brass  kettle,"  not  an  article  of  Indian  make  or  use?  State 
valuation,  $142,443.     U.  S.  valnation,  $204,616. 

39.  Isle  au  Haul. — This  our  "youngest,"  was  incorpo- 
rated February  "l^,  1874.  It  includes  Isle  au  Haut  (Isle  of 
Holt),  the  two  Spoon  islands,  Yorks,  Fog,  Burnt,  Mer- 
chant's, Kimball's  and  all  the  other  islands  south  of  Merchant's 
RoAv.  The  Isle  au  Haut  is  one  league  directly  south  of  Deer 
Isle.  It  contains  about  3,000  acres.  The  highest  part  of 
the  territory  is  in  the  middle  of  the  island,  and  exhibits  the 
appearance  of  a  saddle.  When  first  explored,  it  was  called 
"High  Island,"  its  shore  being  bold,  with  high,  steep  clilfs. 

My  informant,  G.  L.  Hosmer,  says  :  "  The  first  settlement 
was  made  on  Merchant's  Island,  in  1772,  b}^  Anthony  Mer- 
chant. Kimball's  Island  was  settled  during  the  Revolution, 
by  Seth  Webb,  a  noted  hunter,  and  for  whom  Webb's  pond, 
in  Eastbrook,  was  named.  Great  Isle  au  Haut  was  settled 
in  1792,  by  Peltiah  Bartor. 

40.  Islandport,  February  11,  1857,  "Lunt's  "  Long  Island 
was  incorporated  as  the  town  of  "Islandport."  The  Act  was 
repealed  March  27,  1858,  and  it  went  back  to  a  plantation. 
The  support  of  its  paupers  inures  to  Tremont.  The  first 
settlers  were,  one  Barker,  William  Rich,  William  Pomroy, 
Amos,  Jacob  and  Ezra  B.  Lunt.  The  settlers  hold  their 
titles  by  occupany.  It  has  a  population  of  177.  It  is  a  spot 
of  some  500  acres,  well  out  "amid  old  ocean's  roar." 


41.  Plantations. — This  word  was  applied  by  England  to 
British  colonies  in  America,  but  never  to  any  of  the  domin- 
ions in  Europe.  Since  18G1,  unorganized  townships,  when 
they  contain  not  less  than  150  inhabitants,  have  been  required 
to  organize  as  Plantations. 

42.  Inland  Plantations. — No.  7,  population,  69.  No.  8, 
population  20.  No.  10,  population  10.  No.  21,  population 
.50.  No.  28,  population  12.  No.  32,  population  17.  No. 
33,  population  102. 

43.  Island  Plantations. — Hog  Island,  population  6. 
Long  Island,  population,  177.  Harbor  Island,  population 
13.  B^ar  Island,  population  13.  Bradbury  Island,  popula- 
tion 6.  Eagle  Island,  popidation  30.  Spruce  Head  Island, 
population  22.  Beach  Island,  population  9.  Butter  Tshmd, 
population  9.  Eaton  Island,  population  1.  Marshall's 
Island,  population  12.  Pickering's  Island,  populali(jn  5. 
Pumpkin  Island,  population  4.  Ilackatosh  Island,  popula- 
tion 4.  Mt.  Desert  llock,  population  6.  Swan  Island,  pop- 
ulation 451.     Estates,  $27,805. 

44.  Mt.  Desert  Rock. — This  island  rock,  with  less  than  a 
half  acre  surface,  is  isolated  in  stormy  ocean,  twenty  miles 
from  the  main.  Upon  it  is  a  Primary  Sea  Coast  Liglit,  built 
in  1830.  The  tower  of  the  light  is  sixty  feet  high,  and  the 
light  is  seventy  feet  above  sea  level.  At  sea,  under  ordinary 
states  of  atmosphere,  it  can  be  seen  at  a  distance  of  twelve 
nautical,  or  nearly  fourteen  statute  miles.  The  first  light 
houses  within  the  county  limits  were  Baker's  Island  and  Dill's 
Head,  and  were  built  in  1828. 

Physical  Outlines  and  Features. 

45.  Mountains. — The  county  has  but  one  mountain  chain, 
and  but  one  mountain  group.  The  line  of  mountains  stretch- 
ing across  the  Island  of  Mt.  Desert,  is  a  continuation  of  the 
Schoodic  system.  Mt.  Desert  Rock  and  the  Porcupines,  are 
ocean-mountains  of  the  same  system.  This  range  in  crossing 
the  Island  of  Mt.  Desert,  is  upheaved  into  thirteen   well- 


defined  mountain  peaks.  The  highest  peak  of  the  "Coaste 
Hills,"  is  Green  Mountain,  in  Eden. 

The  only  mountain  group  is  in  Dedham  ;  here  ten  moun- 
tains are  clustered  together.  Those  ten  mountain  peaks, 
"rocks  piled  on  rocks  innnensely  high,  with  yawning  gulfs 
between,"  has  given  to  the  town  the  name  of  "The  Switzer- 
land of  Maine."  The  other  elevations  deserving  the  geograph- 
ical name  of  mountains,  are  Bluehill  mountain,  in  Bluehill  ; 
Bull  Hill  mountain,  in  Eastbrook ;  Bald  and  Tunk  moun- 
tains, in  No.  10,  and  Lead  mountain,  in  No.  28.  The  moun- 
tains upon  the  main,  are  conical  peaks,  standing  in  isolation. 

There  are  nine  "Bald"  mountains  in  the  State.  Lead 
mountain  is  said  to  have  been  so  named,  from  the  fact  of  lead 
having  been  found  at  its  base.  Query?  May  this  not  be  the 
"lead  mine"  discovered  50  years  ago,  by  the  hunter,  Webb? 

46.  Surface. — The  characteristic  feature  of  the  topogra- 
phy of  the  county,  is  its  uuevenness,  being  moderately  hilly, 
with  a  greater  fresh  water  area  than  any  other  count}''  in  the 
State.  As  the  mountains  stand  in  a  low  rank  on  the  scale  of 
elevation,  (in  the  ninth)  so  the  valleys  are  not  ravine  in 
character;  the  grand  feature  of  its  surface  conformation, 
being  long  swells,  or  ridge-ranges,  variously  broken  and 
diversified  with  local  elevations  and  depressions,  with  but 
few  abrupt  acclivities  or  escarps.  The  only  narrow  defiles 
of  the  "gorge"  form,  are  at  Morgan's  bay,  Surry,  McHeards, 
Bluehill,  and  near  Mason's  Mills,  Orland.  There  is  a  deal 
of  waste  land,  known  as  "Heaths."  May- not  these  be  ponds 
overgrown  and  heath-clad  with  shrubs? 

47.  Wafer-Sheds. — The  county  has  three  drainage-streams  ; 
the  Penobscot  river  on  the  west,  Lhiion  river  in  the  centre, 
and  Narraguagus  river  on  the  cast.  These  divide  the  county 
into  three  drainage  districts,  with  two  water-sheds.  The 
termini  of  the  western  water-shed  are  Byard's  Point  and  Hat 
Case  Pond.  The  towns  lying  within  the  western  slope,  and 
which  are  drained  into  the  Penobscot  basin,  are  Deer  Isle, 
Sedgwick,  Brooksville,  Penobscot,  Castine,  Orland,  Verona, 
Bucksport,  and  a  part  of  Dedham. 





















The  termini  of  the  eastern  water-shed  are  Schoodic  Point 
and  Nickatou  Lake,  The  territory  drained  by  the  Narragua- 
gus,  are  portions  of  Gouldsborough.  Sullivan  and  Franklin. 
The  towns  tributary  to  the  Union  river  basin,  are  Tremont, 
Mt.  Desert,  Eden,  Laraoine,  Trenton,  Hancock,  AValtham, 
Eastbrook,  Aurora,  Amherst,  Otis,  Mariaville,  Ellsworth, 
Surry,  Bluehill,  Brooklin,  and  parts  of  Franklin,  Dedham, 
Orland  and  Sullivan. 

The  area  tributary  to  each   drainage  basin,  as  computed 

from  Walling's  surveys,  is  : 

Union  river         ----- 
Penobscot  river     -        - 
Narraguagns  river  -        -        - 

The  relative  position  of  each,  is  : 

Drainage  area  of  Union  river 
Drainage  area  of  Penobscot  river 
Drainage  area  of  Xarragnagus  river 

The  mean  rate  of  descent  of  Union  river  is  about  four  feet 
to  the  mile. 

About  one-third  of  the  territory  actually  tributar}^  to  the 
Union  river  basin,  is  below  the  "mouth  of  the  river."  The 
valley  of  this  river  basin  is  underlaid  with  mica  schist. 

48.  Coast  Line. — This  is  a  maritime  county.  Its  seaboard, 
including  the  incurvation  of  the  larger  bays,  is  of  greater  ex- 
tent tban  that  of  any  other  county  in  the  State.  Its  general 
outline  is  that  of  a  great  hemi-cycle,  or  disarranged  curve 
line,  extending  from  Marsh  Bay,  Bucksport,  to  Joy's  Bay^ 
Gouldsborough,  and  is  thicker  set  with  iirst-class  baj^s,  har- 
bors and  islands  than  any  other  seaboard  of  equal  length  on 
the  American  coast. 

The  "meyne,"  as  the  Indians  called  the  main  land,  to  dis- 
tinguish it  from  its  cordon  of  islands,  may  have  suggested 
the  name  of  the  State.  The  islands  by  which  the  coast  line  is 
studded  are  of  every  size,  from  a  "thumb-cap"  to  130  square 
miles  ;  while  Mt.  Desert  Rock  stands  on  "picket"  twenty  miles 
"broad-oti","  in  perpetually  undulating  ocean,  where  it  has 
roughed  it  for  ages. 


There  are  some  300  islands  within  the  county's  sea])oard 
limits,  270  of  which  are  represented  on  the  county  map.  Six 
towns  are  islands,  six  are  peninsulas,  and  twenty-two  arc  salt- 
water washed. 

49.  Light  Houses. — The  following  are  the  names  of  the 
light  stations,  with  their  numbers  : 

1^0.  10,  Prospect  Harbor       -----  5th  order. 

11,  Winter  Harbor 5th  - 

12,  Mount  Desert    - 3d  '■'■ 

13,  Egg  Rock 4th  '' 

14,  Baker's  Island    - 4th  '' 

15,  Bear  Island    ------  5th  " 

16,  Bass  Harbor  Head    -----  5th  ''- 

17,  Burnt  Coat  Harbor       -        -        -        -  5th  *^ 
IS.                 ti          'I         -        -        -        -        -  4th  *' 

19.  Eggemogghi  -----  5th      '^' 

20,  Saddleback  Ledge     -----       5th      '■'' 

22,  Deer  Isle  Thoroughfare        -       -       -  4th  "• 

23,  Eagle  Island  Point 4th  "■ 

24,  Pumpkin  Island             -        -        -        -  5th  " 
33,  Dice's  Head        ------  4th  '' 

Number  of  lighthouses  within  the  county  limits,  fifteen. 

Winter  Ha7^hors.  Bucksport  and  Castine  harbors  are  rarely 
frozen  over.  This  event  occurred  in  1715,  1850,  and  during 
the  hyperborean  winter  of  1875. 

50.  Geology. — Geologically,  the  rock  formation  underly- 
ing the  county  is  granite,  sienite  and  gneiss.  This  formation 
comes  to  the  surface,  and  starting  from  Deer  Isle,  curves 
through  Bluehill,  Sedgwick,  Brooksville,  Orland,  North  Ells- 
worth, No.  8,  Franklin,  Sullivan,  ending  at  Mt.  Desert.  This 
immense  belt  of  granite  is  composed  largely  of  white  feld- 
spar, is  free  from  impurities,  and  makes  a  handsome  stone 
when  dressed.  In  Eden,  there  is  a  deposit  of  red  granite. 
Most  of  the  granite  in  Bucksport,  Orland,  Dedham,  AValtham, 
Eastbrook,  and  those  huge  boulders  at  Ellsworth  Falls,  is  a 
porphyritic  (hard)  variety,  with  black  mica.  Within  the 
horse-shoe  shaped  circle  of  granite,  which  curves  from  Deer 
Isle  to  iNIt.  Desert,  the  rock  is  mostly  mica  schist,  or  a  mima- 
ceous  state.     The  most  abundant  variety  of  mica  schist,  is 

that  which  consists  of  alternate  layers  of  mica  and  quartz. 


It  indicates  the  presence  of  gold  rather  than  coal.  The  rock 
formation  in  Hancock,  Lamoine,  Trenton,  South  Ellsworth, 
Surry  and  Penobscot,  are  considered  by  geologists,  as  belong- 
ing to  one  formation,  and  as  formed  during  the  same  geologi- 
cal period. 

At  Buck's  Harbor  in  Brooksville,  Green's  Landinsr  in  Deer 
Isle,  McHeard's  in  Bluehill,  Somes'  Sound  in  Mt.  Desert, 
Sullivan  and  Franklin,  the  granite  crops  in  massive  form. 
At  Castine,  Penobscot,  Ellsworth  and  Surry,  are  vast  deposits 
of  plastic  clay.  That  there  are  precious  stones  and  valuable 
mineral  deposits  awaiting  only  scientific  exploration  to  de- 
velop, is  legibly  written  on  its  strata. 

51.  Drift. — The  whole  surface  of  the  county  is  termed 
by  geologists  as  "glaciated  surface,"  the  soil  of  which  is 
predicated  upon  a  single  geological  formation,  called  "  drift." 
The  conrse  of  this  drift,  as  shown  by  the  striae,  or  scratches 
upon  the  ledges,  has  a  variation  of  from  N.  5°  W.  to  N.  15° 
E.  At  Ellsworth  its  general  direction  is  N.  15°  W.,  while 
at  Hancock  it  is  N.  15°  E.  The  mountains  in  Dedham,  no 
doubt,  are  the  parent-homes  of  those  large  boulders  on  the 
stage  road  above  Ellsworth  Falls  village.  FrOm  what  "  centre 
of  dispersion"  all  the  other  rock  have  come,  which  are 
deposited  all  over  the  county  in  such  wild  and  profuse  con- 
fusion, some  Agassiz  must  tell.  The  history  of  Glacial  Phe- 
nomena in  Hancock,  is  one  of  special  interest. 

52.  Granite. — Immense  ranges  of  it  traverse  the  county, 
and  it  is  immense  in  amount.  It  is  quarried  at  Mt.  Desert, 
Sullivan,  Bluehill,  Deer  Isle,  Franklin  and  Brooksville,  and 
being  near  the  sea-shore,  are  conveniently  accessible.  They 
are  easily  wrought,  and  the  working  and  exportation  of  them 
have  become  a  business  of  great  importance.  Red  granite 
has  been  found  at  Eden  and  at  Tremont,  and  is  attracting  the 
attention  of  capitalists. 

53.  Marble.  —  Verd  Antique  (ancient  green)  Marble 
occurs  at  Deer  Isle.  It  is  sometimes  called  "  serpentine  " 
from  its  mottled  appearance,  somewhat  resembling  the  skin 
of  a  snake.     It  is  susceptible  of  a  high  polish.     If  it  will 


qnnrrv  without  "fault,"  it  is  of  rare  value.     Statuary  marble, 
milk  white,  is  reported  at  Eden  and  at  Mt.  Desert. 

54.  Minerals  and  Ores.  BroohsvilJe. — Iron  Pyrites, 
known  as  fool's  gold.  Copperas,  sulphur,  alum,  and  carbon- 
ate of  soda  can  l)e  manufactured  fi'om  it. 

Bluehill. — Fluor  spar  used  in  chemistry.  Yalena,  or  ore 
of  lead.  Wolfram,  the  ore  of  tin.  Hydrate  of  Silica,  suita- 
ble for  fire-proof  brick.  An  enormous  bed  of  Manganese, 
Limestone,  Phosphate  of  Lime,  of  which  suj)erphosphate  is 

Bucksport. — Limestone,  clay  slate  of  w^hich  school  slates 
are  made.     Quartz  used  in  the  manu Picture  of  glass. 

Castiiie.  —  Quartz,  argillaceous  slate,  plastic  clay,  first 
quality  for  brick-making. 

Deer  Isle.  Asbestos  (unchanged  by  fire),  incombustible 
paper,  gloves  for  handling  heated  metals,  and  fire-proof  safes 
are  manufactured  from  it.  The  ancients  made  a  cloth  of  it, 
in  which  dead  bodies  were  wrapped  before  the  burning,  and 
thus  saved  the  ashes.  It  w^as  used  for  lamp  Avicks.  Novacu- 
lite,  oil  stones  and  hones  are  made  of  it.     Limestone. 

The  county  having  been  favored  with  little  more  than  a 
revenue  cutter  geological  exploration,  comparatively  nothing 
is  known  of  the  minerals  and  metallic  ores,  that  are  of  value 
in  the  arts.  The  only  lime  rock  discovered  which  is  not  too 
metaphoric  to  be  of  value,  is  at  Little  Deer  Isle.  Red  sienite 
has  recently  been  found  at  Tremont,  which  may  be  wrought 
into  elegant  articles  of  ornament,  and  it  w^ill  take  a  fine  and 
durable  polish.  A  deposit  of  granular  quartz  occurs  in  Surry. 
Veins  of  zinc  and  copper  occur  in  No.  7,  and  in  Gouldsboro'. 
Bog  iron  occurs  in  almost  every  town.  Gold  has  been  found 
in  Bucksport,  Orland  and  Surry  ;  mining  must  determine  the 
abundance.  The  structure  of  our  rocks  does  not  indicate  the 
presence  of  coal,  yet  there  are  recent  geological  observations 
which  imply  that  anthracite  coal  w-ill  be  found. 

■55.  Mineral  Springs. — Those  known  to  the  wn-iter,  are  at 
Bucksport,  Brooksville,  Bluehill  and  Mt.  Desert.    The  waters 


of  each  are  chalybeate,  and  are  strongly  charged  with  iron. 
They  deposit  an  ore  resembling  yellow  ochre,  from  which  red 
paint  may  be  readily  made.  These  waters  are  said  to  possess 
medical  efficacy  in  the  treatment  of  chronic  and  inflammatory 

56.  Salt. — For  the  manufacture  of  sea- water  salt,  we  have 
superior  facilities.  Sea  water  contains  3  per  cent,  of  pure  salt. 
With  the  many  "land-locked"  salt  water  storage  basins,  having 
a  mean  of  thirteen  feet  of  tidal  rise  and  fall,  and  being  acces- 
sible to  market  by  the  cheapest  form  of  transportation,  the 
making  of  salt,  especially  to  supply  the  demand  for  it  as  a 
fertilizer,  is  no  small  item  of  our  mineral  resources. 

57.  Sea- Weed. — The  marine  plants,  eel-grass,  rock- weed 
and  kelp,  grow  in  abundance  along  our  shores.  As  a  manure 
they  are  applied  in  various  ways.  Sea-weed  dried  and  pressed 
into  bales,  may  hereafter  become  a  portable  article  of  com- 
mercial importance.  The  constituents  of  sea-weed  are  lime, 
9. GO;  magnesia,  6.65;  potash,  20;  soda,  4.58;  salt,  24.33; 
sulphuric  acid,  21.97;  and  carbonic  acid,  6.39.  From  the 
ashes  iodine  is  obtained,  which  is  employed  medicinally. 

58.  Ice. — For  a  supply  of  export  ice,  we  have  a  fresh  water 
pond  surface  of  more  than  50,000  square  acres ;  enough  to 
cool  the  torrid  markets  of  the  world.  At  no  distant  day,  the 
cutting  of  ice  will  become  a  source  of  material  wealth.  Active 
operations  have  been  made  at  Mt.  Desert,  Lamoine,  Goulds- 
borough  and  Bucksport.  With  the  present  margin  of  profit, 
and  the  close  competition,  the  ice  field  must  not  be  remote 
from  the  place  of  shipment. 


Under  this  heading,  those  industries  are  stimulated  by  the 
sea  which  washes  our  shores,  and  the  rivers  that  Avater  its 

From  the  earliest  settlements  of  the  county,  the  character 
of  its  inhabitants  has  been,  in  a  great  proportion,  that  of  a 
maritime,  lumbering  and  fishing  people.  Its  numerous  bays 
and  harbors,  its  abundant  material  for  vessel  building,  its  area 


of  timber  lands,  with  almost  limitless  quantities  of  lumber, 
and  the  immense  number  of  fishes  which  frequented  the  coast, 
were  exciting,  and  inciting  temptations  to  engage  in  these 
several  pursuits,  and  to  give  to  the  county  a  "stern-chase" 

As  "crows  the  old  cock,  so  crows  the  young."  Our  young 
men,  taking  cue  from  the  fathers,  keep  afresh  the  "old  love" 
for  the  logging  swamp  and  ocean  wave,  preferring  the  activity 
of  the  one  and  the  excitement  of  the  other,  to  the  more  quiet 
scenes  of  the  farm. 

58.  Coasticise  Trade. — The  complex  nature  of  this  in- 
dustry, renders  it  impossible  to  ascertain  with  any  degree  of 
precision  its  real  status. 

The  custom-house  will  exhibit  the  amount  of  the  foreign 
imports  and  exports ;  but  this  will  be  far  from  aflording  an 
adequate  idea  of  the  actual  foreign  trade.  Many  cargoes 
entered  in  our  ports  are  shipped  coastwise,  and  reshipped  for 
their  final  markets.  Most  of  the  sugar-box  shooks  manu- 
factured here  are  shipped  to  Portland,  and  reshipped  to  their 
final  destination.  So  foreign  articles,  consumed  here,  as  sugar, 
tea,  coftee,  etc.,  are  taken  from  subdivided  cargoes  in  coast- 
wise ports.  So  with  the  coaster  traffic,  as  wood,  staves,  and 
hoop-poles,  for  Rockland,  long  lumber  and  short,  bark  and 
bricks,  for  domestic  ports.  The  amount  of  capital  invested 
in  the  manufacture  of  lumber  in  Hancock  County  reaches  the 
sum  of  $700,000.  As  a  tolerable  index  to  the  commercial 
importance  of  the  county,  and  to  the  tonnage  employed  in  its 
foreign  coasting  and  fishing  trade,  herewith  are  given  its 
commercial  ports. 

59.  Custom  Districts.  There  are  two  custom  districts,  two 
ports  of  entry,  six  deputy  districts,  eight  ports  of  delivery, 
twenty-six  hailing  ports,  and  thirteen  United  States  custom 
house  officials. 

60.  The  Forests. — Originally,  pine,  spruce,  hemlock,  birch, 
beech,  maple,  ash,  cedar,  red  oak,  and  hackmatack,  were 
abundant.  But  the  waster  of  "God's  first  temples"  came,  and 
before  the  insatiable  chopper's  axe  the  primeval  forests  have 


disappeared,  until,  excepting  the  upper  branches  of  Union 
river,  scarcely  a  representative  tree  is  left,  and  our  once  well 
timbered  county,  in  its  old  growth  is  almost  treeless ;  while 
the  demands  for  stave  timber,  box  stuff,  vessel  wedges,  and  fuel 
for  lime  kilns,  are  rapidly  divesting  it  of  its  second  growth. 

AVhile  lumbering  is  classified  as  an  industry,  it  is  one  which 
creates  not  a  distributive  but  a  centralized  wealth,  in  which 
but  one  in  thirty  share,  while  the  twenty-nine  are  pursued  by 
hard  times,  like  "Acta3n  by  his  own  hounds."  It  engenders 
a  upas  atmosphere,  in  which  agriculture  does  not  thrive. 

61.  The  Fisheries. — One  of  the  most  valuable  industries, 
stripped  of  the  peculiar  nomenclature  of  ichthyology,  are 
treated  as  fisheries  of  the  deep-sea,  harl)or,  and  interior. 

No  person  can  sail  along  our  coast,  or  explore  our  bays  and 
harbors,  or  travel  over  our  territory  and  examine  the  numer- 
ous rivers  and  ponds,  without  being  struck  with  the  uncom- 
mon chances  for  marine  and  other  fisheries. 

The  chain  of  fishing  l^anks  led  the  European  to  our  coasts 
in  search  of  the  last  refuge  and  hiding  place  of  the  every- 
where hunted  codfish.  Fish  caught  in  the  waters  of  Maine, 
saved  the  Plymouth  Colony  from  starvation. 

62.  llie  Deep-Sea  Fishes  include  the  cod,  pollock,  hake, 

haddock,   halibut,   and  mackerel.     In  the  cod  and  mackerel 

fisheries,  some  4,000  of  vessel  tonnage  are  employed.   Custom 

house  returns  for  1874,  show  a  product  as  follows  : 

Codfish  cured  88,099  cwt.        -        -  Cash  vahie  $164,625 

Mackerel.  11,800  -        _        .        .  "  89,820 

Hake,  haddock  and  pollock,  15,000  cwt.  "  25,200 

Total  -  _  _  -  -  $276,645 

By  a  new  process,  haddock  are  converted  into  a  very 
marketable  article,  known  as  "finnie  haddie,"  which  gives  to 
the  catching  of  this  kind  of  fish  a  commercial  value  hitherto 

63.  Boat-Fishinq . — The  trade  in  fresh  fish,  caught  and 
brought  in  open  boats,  is  usually  overlooked  in  the  statistics 
of  this  industry.  Many  of  the  inhabitants  upon  the  outer 
islands  subsist  chiefly  by  supplying  the  maritime  towns  with 


fresh  cod,  hake  and  haddock.  At  Lunt's  Long  Ishmd, 
women  are  seen  ahiiost  daily  rowing  "  cross  or  open  handed  " 
on  their  Avay  to  the  fishing  grounds.  ^Nlan}^  of  them  are 
"high-line"  fisher  men.  Returns  show  this  domestic  deep- 
sea  fishing  to  have  yielded  444,000  pounds,  valued  at  $8,880. 

64.  ,  Herring. — This  branch  of  fishing,  scarcely  second  to 
any  in  commercial  importance,  is  sub-divided, — the  summer 
Magdalen  herring  fishing — the  winter  Grand  ]Menan  and  the 
harbor  weirs.  The  data  at  hand,  show  the  weir  and  summer 
catch  as  330,350  boxes  ;  value,  $80,487.  The  Magdalen  and 
Grand  Menan  herring  fishing  is  conducted  principally  by  the 
people  of  Lamoine  and  Swan's  Island.  On  the  return  of  the 
fishing  vessels,  with  good  "fares,"  the  "washing  out,"  string- 
ing, smoking  and  boxing  of  the  herring,  make  a  lively  time. 

65.  Harbor  Fishing. — This  includes  the  porgie,  lobster, 
smelt,  eels,  frost-fish,  flounders,  clams  and  scollops. 

^Q.  Porgies. — This  migratory  fish,  which  "schools"  in 
our  waters  in  illimitable  numbers,  has  opened  a  new  industry, 
in  the  productions  of  oil,  fertilizers  and  sheep  feed.  They 
come  in  July  and  stay  until  into  October.  But  a  few  years 
since,  they  were  thought  to  be  inedible  and  valueless,  except 
for  mackerel  bait.  Accident  developed  their  oil-yielding 
gift.  The  yield  of  oil  is  about  12^  per  cent,  of  their  live 
weight.  The  residuum  left  after  expressing  the  oil,  or  the 
"  chum  "  as  it  is  known  in  our  vernacular,  properly  prepared, 
is  a  fertilizer  without  a  peer.  In  its  crude  condition,  as  it 
comes  from  the  oil-press,  its  fertilizing  properties  are  from 
four  to  six  times  as  powerful  as  farm  yard  deposits. 

The  greater  and  more  valuable  of  its  plant-food  is  its  nitro- 
gen. The  aptitude  of  this  valuable  constituent  to  "fly  ofl'" 
and  "  waste  its  odors  in  the  desert  air,"  when  chum  is  left  in 
heaps  exposed  to  a  scorching  sun  and  searching  winds,  for  a 
long  time,  escaped  the  observation  of  all  concerned.  A 
smelling  acquaintance  Avill  unerringly  tell  Avhen  chum  is 
decomposing  and  throwing  oft*  its  golden  nitrogen.  This 
exposure-loss  is  more  than  half  of  its  money  value.  The 
greatest  value  of  chum  is  a  sheep  feed,  for  which  it  is  pre- 


pared  by  sun  drying.  This  process  reduces  its  original 
weight  75  per  cent.,  equivalent  to  an  increase  of  its  weight  of 
common  barn  manure.  As  a  sheep  feed,  its  nutrient  proper- 
ties chemically  considered,  are  those  known  as  "  fat-formers." 
Formerly  porgies  were  caught  in  nets,  but  now  are  taken  in 
seines.  From  400  to  600  tons  of  chum  are  made  annually 
within  the  county  limits.  W.  A.  Friend,  Brooklin,  estimates 
the  yearly  cash  value  of  raw  chum  at  $6,000.  The  experi- 
ence of  the  writer  is  that  the  feeding  value  of  one  ton  of 
cured  chum,  is  equal  to  that  of  thirty-six  bushels  of  corn. 

When  porgie  or  herring  chum,  as  a  feed  or  a  fertilizer,  is 
so  prepared  as  to  conserve  its  nitrogen,  or  ammonia,  its 
agricultural  value  is  much  greater  than  its  present  commercial 
value  ;  otherwise  its  commercial  value  is  more  than  its  agri- 
cultural. Estimating  a  ton  of  fresh  animal  manure  at  $5.77, 
a  corresponding  value  for  chum  is  $34.62. 

The  porgie  catch  in  the  State  last  season,  employed  94  sail 
vessels,  17  steamers,  700  men,  and  a  capital  of  $650,000. 
The  largest  seines  are  200  fathoms  long,  by  30  fathoms  deep. 

Experiments  made  at  the  Massachusetts  Agricultural  Col- 
lege, by  applying  ether  to  dried  chum,  show  that  the  hydraulic 
pressure  employed  at  the  factories,  expresses  but  a  triHe  more 
than  70  per  cent,  of  the  oil. 

A  patent  has  recently  been  obtained  for  preparing  porgie 
chum  as  a  sheep  feed.  Yet  no  one  with  sconce  enough  to 
sun-dry  fresh  chum,  need  pay  a  royalty  to  a  patentee. 

67.  Lobsters. — As  lobsters  are  found  only  on  this  side  of 
Cape  Cod,  and  the  demand  for  their  luxurious  flesh  is  im- 
mense ;  this  makes  a  ver}'  great  business  for  our  county 
people.  Packing  and  canning  establishments  are  in  success- 
ful operation  at  Castine,  Deer  Isle,  Brooklin,  Gouldsboro', 
Mt.  Desert  and  Cranberry  Isles,  and  at  other  points.  The 
aggregate  value  of  this  production  reaches  a  value  of  $52,000. 

Q%.  Smelts. — The  catch,  chiefly,  of  these  little  but  deli- 
cious fishes,  is  in  Bagaduce  river  and  Patten's  Bay.  The 
smelt  and  frost-fish  are  unlike.  The  season  of  smelt-fishing 
begins  as  soon  as  the  ice  is  sufficiently  firm  to  carry  the 


catchers.  Each  has  a  "  seven  by  nine,"  cotton  cloth  covered 
fish-house,  with  a  floor  and  a  stove.  An  average  day's  catch 
nets  the  fisher  $2.50.  Hundreds  of  these  snow-Avhite  fish 
houses  speck  the  2cescape,  and  resemble  the  tents  of  an  army 
encampment.     The  yearly  production  is  $30,000. 

69.  Frost-FisJi. — The  principal  branch  of  this  fishing  is 
at  the  Bucksport  and  Verona  bridge.  For  the  rental  right 
to  this  fishing  ground,  as  high  as  $1,300  per  year  has  been 
paid.  The  yearly  product  in  cash  value  for  frost-fish,  floun- 
ders, eels  and  scallops,  is  $11,000.  The  value  of  other  fish 
is  $20,200.     Clams  1)06  bbls.,  $32,500. 

70.  River  Fisheries. — These  include  such  of  the  anadro- 
mous  fishes  as  the  alewives,  shad  and  salmon.  While  the 
alewive  belongs  to  the  herring  family,  it  spawns  in  fresh 
water.  The  shad,  of  the  same  family,  is  a  very  timid  fish. 
The  salmon,  esteemed  for  their  delicacy  of  flesh,  is  the  largest 
and  most  valuable.  Until  a  comparatively  recent  period, 
the  rivers  of  this  county  fairly  swarmed  with  them. 

Salmon  Ashing  is  now  confined  to  the  Penobscot  and  Baga- 
duce  rivers.  In  olden  times  the  most  abundant  fish  in  our 
rivers,  was  the  shad,  and  next  the  salmon.  Alewives  were  ex- 
ceedingly abundant.  River  fishing  at  the  present,  is  almost 
confined  to  w^eirs,  which  cost  some  $80  each.  Between 
Bucksport  and  Castine,  both  inclusive,  there  are  ninety-two 

The  most  productive  weir  of  which  we  have  any  informa- 
tion, is  that  at  the  entrance  of  Castine  harbor,  which  produces 
in  one  year  more  than  1,600  pounds  of  salmon.  From  Cas- 
tine to  Orland  the  average  catch  is  set  at  fifty  per  weir.  In 
Verona  the  best  weirs  yield  about  100  each.  Above  Bucks- 
port  it  falls  to  thirty  each.  The  breeding  grounds  of  ale- 
wives are  in  the  ponds  on  Eastern  river.  Walker's  pond  in 
Brooksville,  and  Patten's  ponds  in  Surry.  Formerly  Union 
river  was  a  favorite  haunt  of  salmon,  shad  and  alewives. 

Upon  the  presence  of  the  anadromous  fishes  in  our  rivers 
and  ponds,  depends  the  existence  of  cod,  haddock  and  pollock 
in  our  bays.     The  relationships  are  those  of  cause  and  effect. 



71.  Fish  Farming,  or  Fish  Culture,  or  Pisciculture,  by 
whichever  of  these  terms  it  is  known,  is  not  a  new  but  a 
re-discovered  art.  Its  practical  meaning  is  a  restocking  of 
our  ponds  with  fish.  These  were  once  prolific  in  all  the 
kinds  of  migratory  fish,  such  as  pickerel,  perch,  bass,  shad, 
salmon,  alewives,  togue  and  trout. 

No  one,  having  a  knowledge  of  the  habits  of  these  fishes, 
can  inspect  our  vast  lacustrine  surface,  with  its  cold,  limpid 
waters,  without  being  impressed  with  the  extent  and  magni- 
tude of  our  county's  fish  farm. 

The  only  reliable  data  which  we  can  recall  to  show  the  re- 
munerative harvests  which  these  non-productive  waters  may 
be  made  to  yield,  is  the  river  Tay,  in  Scotland,  which  for 
seven  years  has  aflorded  to  the  riparian  an  annual  average  of 
$74,616.  Now  for  a  comparison:  In  the  same  ratio  which 
that  river  has  been  made  to  yield  of  restocked  fish,  Patten's 
ponds  in  Surry  would  produce  yearly,  in  cash  value,        $660 

Toddy  ponds 1,000 

Union  river  and  tributaries 24,000 

When  our  fish  farms  are  once  seeded,  it  is  perpetual. 

Commissioner  Stanley  says  that  Patten's  ponds  are  of  the 
best  salmon  producing  ponds  in  the  State. 

For  what  is  being  done  to  restock  our  waters,  read  the  ac- 
companying letter  of  Ex-State  Fish  Commissioner  Atkins.  I 
commend  its  careful  perusal : 

"  Penobscot  Salmon  Breeding  Works. — This  institution,  situated  iu  Bucks- 
port,  on  Spofford's  brook,  one  mile  from  the  Penobscot  river,  was  founded 
in  1872.  Its  object  is  to  collect  salmon  eggs  for  use  in  restocking  ex- 
hausted salmon  rivers.  The  present  patrons  of  the  enterprise  are  the 
Commissioner  of  Fish  and  Fisheries  of  the  United  States,  and  the  Com- 
missioners of  Maine,  Massachusetts,  New  Hampshire,  Vermont,  Ehode 
Island,  Connecticut  and  Michigan,  all  acting  in  behalf  of  their  several 
governments,  and  using  the  ^ggii  obtained  to  restock  ijublic  waters. 

The  mode  of  operating  is  as  follows  :  In  June  or  July,  six  or  seven  hun- 
dered  salmon  are  bought  alive  from  the  fishermen  near  Bueksport,  and 
transferi-ed  to  a  small  pond,  known  as  '  Great  Pond,'  where  they  are  kept 
until  the  last  of  October,  when  they  begin  to  lay  their  eggs.  They  are 
then  taken  from  the  pond,  and  deprived  of  their  eggs  by  manual  pressure. 
The  eggs  are  fecundated  by  the  application  of  milt  from  the  male  fish, 


and  depositefl  in  hatching  tronghs,  wliere  tlioy  lie  until  snfflciently  devel- 
oped to  admit  of  being  pat-ked  up  in  moss  and  transported  to  tlie  several 
places  where  they  are  to  be  liatched  out.  Tliis  transportation  is  effected 
in  February  and  March,  and  they  hatcli  soon  after. 

The  number  of  eggs  obtained  in  1872  was  1,560,000,  and  the  number  of 
young  fish  obtained  from  tliem,  and  distributed,  was  876,000.  In  1873,  the 
number  of  eggs  obtained  was  about  2.400.000.  and  so  great  success  has 
attended  tiieir  development  tliat  they  cannot  fail  to  yield  about  2,000,000 
of  young  salmon.  The  expenditure  in  1872-3.  was  about  -$7,800,  and  in 
1873—1.  about  $0,500.  Considerable  parts  of  these  sums  were  for  buildings 
and  fixtures.  The  hatching  house  is  seventy  feet  by  twenty-eight,  and 
with  its  present  fixtures  has  a  capacity  sufficient  for  the  development  of 
four  and  a  half  millions  of  eggs.'' 

Last  year  (1875)  some  2,000,000  salmon  eggs  were  dis- 
tributed from  these  works,  and  planted  in  other  waters  of 
Maine.  Craig's  pond  in  Orland,  was  stocked  with  salmon  in 
1873,  and  Phillips'  pond  in  Dedham,  with  black  bass,  a  year 
or  two  earlier.  This  season,  lish-ways  were  constructed  in 
the  outlet  of  Patten's  pond,  in  Surry. 

72.  0^7.— The  yearly  yield  of  fish  oil  for  1873,  as  per  data, 
was,  of  cod,  hake  and  porgie,  32,174  gallons,  having  a  mar- 
ket value  of  $27,245.  Of  this  sum,  $20,000  was  for  porgie 
oil.     Thus  we  have  : 

Deep-sea  production,  value          _        _        _        -  $296,645 

Boat  fisliing        -        - -           8,880 

Harbor  fishing        -------  211.987 

Oil        ---------  -        27.345 

Total  value  --.___        $544,857 

Fish-farming,  or  the  propagation  of  fish  in  our  rivers  and 

ponds,  though  in  its  infancy,  is  big  with  promise.     It  is  said 

that  four  Indians  took  2,000  pounds  of  pickerel  from  Scam- 

raon's  pond  m  Eastbrook,  in  one  week. 

73.  "Water  Power. — The  Hydrographic  Survey  of  the 
State  gives  our  combined  area  of  pond  surface,  as  11  per 
cent.  al)ove  the  proportion  due  to  our  size.  Subjoined  is  a 
list  of  those  of  the  first  and  second  rank. 

Aurora. — Giles'  and  Middle  Branch. 

JBucksporf. — William,  Bucks,  McCurtis,  Reed,  Long,  Han 
cock.  Great,  and  sections  of  Brewer's  and  Moulton's. 


BlueJiill.  —  First,  Second,  Third,  Fourth,  Noyes  and 

BrooTisviUe. — Walker's,  Parker's,  Blodgett's,  Snake  and 
Bakemans,  a  salt  water  pond. 

Deer  Me. — Torrey's. 

Dedham. — Reed's,  Goose,  Rocky,  Mitchell's,  Allen's, 
Fitz's,  Mountain,  Hat  Case,  and  section  of  Moulton's,  and 
Rocky  No.  2. 

Ellsworth. — Branch,  Reed's,  and  section  of  Patten's. 

Eden. — Eagle. 

Easthrook. — Molasses,  Abram's  and  section  of  Webb's  and 

Franklin. — George's,  Taunton  and.  section  of  Donnels'. 

Gouldsbord' . — Jones  and  Forbes. 

Lamoine. — Blunt's,  a  natural  curiosity. 

Mariaville. — Section  of  Hopkins'. 

Mt.  Desert. — Hallocks,  Jordans',  and  section  of  Great 
Denings,  and  Round. 

Otis. — Floods',  Beach  Hill,  and  section  of  Spring,  and 

Orland. — Alamasook,  Craig's,  Rocky,  Heart,  Hot  Hole, 
section  of  Toddy,  and  Pattens. 

Penobscot. — Pierces,  North  Bay,  and  section  of  Toddy. 

8edgwick. — Frost's  and  Orcutt's. 

Surry. — Sections  of  Upper  Patten,  Lower  Patten  and 

Sidlivan. — Flanders,  Morancy  and  Simpson's. 

Tremont. — Seal  Cove,  and  section  of  Great  and  Denings. 

Waltham. — Little,  and  section  of  Webb's. 

No.  10.  Great  Tunk,  Long,  Fox,  Rocky,  Downing  and 
section  of  Spring  Run  and  Round. 

No.  21,  Spectacle;  No.  22,  Rocky;  No.  33,  Great;  No. 
34,  Alligator  Lake ;  No.  40,  section  of  Abamgamook  and 
Nicartou  Lakes. 

Whole  number  of  powers  which  may  be  worked  all  the 
year,  92. 

Working  energy  equal  to  a  population  of  1,000,000. 




No.  of 

height  of  fall. 

height  of  fall. 

Work  all 
the  year. 












7  feot. 

14  " 

'IS  :; 

12     " 

15  " 
10     " 

11  " 

12  " 
30     " 
10     " 

15     " 
10     " 

20     " 
30     " 
12     " 

12     " 
10     " 

18     " 

7  feet. 
9     " 
9     " 

11  " 

12  " 

12     " 

10     « 

9     " 
10     " 
15     " 
10     " 

12     " 
10     " 

10  " 

11  '■ 
10     " 

12  " 
10     " 
10     " 








Deer  Isle 








Mt.  Desert 













Nos.  3-4-7-10  35  40-41 


Agricultural  Features  and  Practices. 

74.  The  best  of  the  feast  has  been  saved,  to  be  served  in 
the  second  course. 

A  primary  farming  county,  this  can  never  hope  to  be. 
There  are  natural  obstacles,  which  art  cannot  remove.  Its 
peculiar  proximity  to  the  ocean,  its  geographical  position  as 
the  battle-ground  of  arctic  and  torrid  temperatures,  with  their 
alternating  climatic  weaves  of  heat  and  cold,  producing  long, 
cold,  and  uncertain  springs,  with  irregular  extremes  of  thaw- 
ing and  freezing,  so  fatal  to  grass  roots,  the  inexhaustible 
hydraulic  power  within  its  borders,  the  facilities  for  coasting 
and  fishing,  and  the  extraordinary  aversion  to  farm  labor, 
become  characteristics  in  common,  which  forbid  a  prosperous 
and  productive  agriculture. 

Could  our  water  power  be  utilized,  it  would  invigorate 
agriculture  and  make  it  remunerative. 

We  have  some  good  farms  and  farmers,  lint  those  are  the 
exceptions,  limited  in  consequence  of  the  wrong  direction  in 



which  our  practical  farming  has  been  progressing,  i.  e.  in  the 
direction  of  grain  growing  and  hoed  crops,  rather  than  graz- 
ing, dairying,  and  mutton  growing. 

Accounting  for  10  per  cent,  of  improved  land  in  tillage,  and 
occupied  by  buildings,  leaves  for  crops  as  follows  :  ()5,o0() 
acres  in  hay  ;  1,892  acres  in  potatoes  ;  1,091  acres  in  barley  ; 
1,637  acres  in  oats ;  270  acres  in  wheat ;  250  acres  in  coru. 
Those  to  every  fifty-three  improved  acres  ;  one  cow  to  every 
seventeen  improved  acres,  or  one  cow  to  every  six  and  one- 
third  inhabitants. 

75.  Area. — The  whole  surface  area  of  the  county,  as  shown 
by  Colton's  map,  is  : 

Whole  area        __-_-.  1,(332.000  srjuare  miles. 

Land  area  -------  904..528            " 

Ocean  area         ------  637.472  " 

Pond  area  -------  90,000 

Island  area         ------  100.000 

The  relative  proportion  of  each  is  : 

Land  area  .__----  624  per  cent. 

Ocean  area  ------  30         •' 

Pond  area  -------  Tj'' 

Island  area  -        -        -        -        -        -  Hi" 

Other  areas : 

Wild  land  area           _        -  -        -        530.499  square  acres. 

Elver  basin  area             -  -        -             104,068  '"'• 

Area  in  farms  (improA^ed)  -        -        103. .538  " 

Area  in  pasture      -----      73,483  " 

Area  in  fire-wood  lots        -  -        -          80.483  " 

Area  in  highways           _  -        -        -       2.100  " 

The  cash  value  of  farms,  stock  and  implements,  is  : 

Farms $3,032,269 

Stock -  802.934 

Implements  --------      24.5.000 

Poultry    - 75.000 

Capital  embarked  in  agriculture        -        -        -  $4,155,203 

Density  of  population,   one  inhabitant  to  every  25  square 


Price.  Value. 

.«i2.00  per  bush.  §5,998 

1.00        "  131 

1.05        "  6.259 

.70        "  24.077 

.90        '*■  29.518 

1.00      '• 

.50        '•  110.G89 

.40  per  lb.  29.130 

2.00  per  bush.  19.728 

.40  per  lb.  212.798 

.20       ''  2.119 

.20  per  gal.  4.368 

14.00  per  ton,  457.142 

.25  per  lb.  1,418 

.20  per  doz.  128,000 

3.50  per  bush.  7.000 

One-tenth  of  the  horses  or  colts  sold  annually.  $30  per  head,  5,585 
One-fourth  of  the  sheep  sold  annually,  .$3.25  per  head         -           -    16,250 

Pigs  and  pork             ._.--__  o.OOO 

Orchards                _______  10.(;17 

Slaughtered  animals             ______  130.845 

Poultry  sold         .---_-_  48.000 

Other  products           _______  49.235 

Tfi.      Cr 


Farm  Crops. 



2.999  busliels 










610        " 




72.827  lbs. 

Peas  and  Beans, 

9.864  bush. 


531,997  lbs. 


10.596  lbs. 

Milk  sold. 

21.844  gals. 


32.653  tons, 


5.673  lbs. 


640.000  doz. 


2.000  bush. 

Total  value  of  form  products  _  .  _  81.260.989 

Which  would  be  $4.80  per  acre  for  all  the  field  and  pasture 

land  in  the  county.     The  average  number  of  acres  in  each 

farm  being  70,  it  follows  that  the  average  annual  surplus  of 

the  farm  is  $336. 

The  proportion  of  cows  to  aggregate  stock,  is  37  per  cent. 
In  1860,  butter  per  cow,  82  lbs.  In  1870,  per  cow,  92  lbs. 
In  1873,  per  cow,  109  lbs.  Numl)er  of  coavs,  5,777  ;  num- 
ber of  oxen,  2,399  ;  number  of  other  cattle,  5,103  ;  number 
of  horses,  1,958;  number  of  sheep,  20,084. 

The  tendenc}^  of  grain  growing  for  the  last  decade,  as  shoAvn 
by  the  census  returns  (which  arc  not  entitled  to  implicit  con- 
fidence so  long  as  there  are  so  many  units  of  measure  as  there 
are  points  of  compass),  are,  in  i860,  taking  rank  as  follows, 
and  in  1873  as  follows  : 

In  1860.                        Ill  1873.                Crop  rep.     by    rep.  in  1873. 

1.  Oats.  1.  Oats.  100  ill  1860,     Oats,      100    by  .64 

2.  AVlieat,  2.  Barley,                       Barley,  100  1.02 

3.  Barley,  3.  Corn,'                         Corn.      100  .34 

4.  Corn,  4.  Wheat,                       Wlieat.  100  .42 

5.  Eye,  5.  Eye,                          Eye,       100  .17 



Total  bushels  of  grain  in  1860,  110,420.  Total  in  1873, 
76,296,  or  a  decrease  of  30  per  cent. 

The  lessons  which  these  data  teach  are,  first,  that  our 
county  is  growing  out  of  grain-growing,  barley  excepted  ; 
second,  that  a  reduction  of  83  per  cent,  in  the  rye  crop  in  13 
years,  shows  that  the  soil  is  being  cropped  of  its  available 
nitrogen,  so  easily  supplied  by  marine  manuring,  hence  the 
falling  off  in  wheat  and  corn. 

As  our  farming  seems  to  be  going  from  grain  growing,  in 

what  direction  is  ,it  trending  ? 

The  increased  product  of  cranberries  in  thirteen  years  is  400  per  cent. 

Poultry  and  eggs           _____  200  " 

Catth^  in  vahie          -           -           -           -           -           -  45  •' 

Orchard  products         _____  42  " 

Butter  in  pounds                -           -           -           -           -  32  '' 

Mutton               -           -           -           -           -           -  23  " 

The  increase  in  butter  per  cow,  from  1S70  to  1873,  is  11|  " 

Milk           _______  11  " 

Thus  the  statistical  trend  of  our  forming  is  to  cranberries, 
grazing,  butter,  apples  and  eggs. 

Along  the  indentations  in  its  dividing  ridges  of  highlands, 
the  soil  has  the  elements  for  growing  winter  Mdieat  profitably. 
The  drift  on  its  numerous  hill-sides,  makes  many  a  rocky  acre 
admirably  calculated  for  orcharding,  for  growing  those  choice 
winter  varieties  of  apples  for  which  there  ever  is  a  hungry 
demand.  The  general  condition  of  its  surface  is  that  of  a 
dairy  and  mutton  growing,  or  grazing  district,  wiiile  there  is 
hardly  a  town  in  the  county  without  its  cranberry  area,  of 
greater  or  less  extent. 

The  past  ten  years'  ratio  of  increased  cran1)erry  culture, 
carried  forward,  at  the  expiration  of  twenty-five  years  will 
give  a  product  of  $70,000. 

Of  the  county  area  which  is  now  unimproved,  one-half  of 
it  may  be  set  out  as  profitable  for  pasturage  only,  grazing 
ground  for  a  million  sheep.  The  half  remaining  would  make 
4,892  farms  of  seventy  acres  each. 

The  topography  of  the  surface  of  the  county,  and  the  litho- 
logical  character  of  the  soil,  mark  the  characteristics  of  its 


a o-ri cultural  capacity  as  a  grazing  district.  The  hilly  nature 
of  the  land  points  to  grazing  as  the  true  method  whereby  the 
land  shall  be  made  profitable.  Grain  should  be  grown  only 
as  an  exceptional  crop,  secondary  to  the  increased  productive- 
ness of  the  land  for  the  growth  of  hay.  The  precipitous  hill- 
side, where  cattle  have  to  "shin  up"  to  gather  the  scanty  herb- 
age, should  grow  wood. 

77.  Orchards. — In  orchard  acreage  Dedham  stands  fii'st, . 
and  of  Avinter  fruit,  Bucksport  next ;  Vhile  every  town  can 
show  more  or  less  of  thrifty  trees.  The  large,  gnarled,  moss- 
covered  apple  trees  which  stand  in  close  proximity  to  the 
"potato-holes"  of  the  early  settlers,  show  that  they  tind  favor- 
able conditions  of  growth  in  our  soil  and  climate. 

The  county  did  not  escape  the  apple  tree  cyclone  which . 
swept  over  the  State.  Its  investment  in  New  York  trees, 
trustworthy  estimates  put  at  $175,000.  A  profitable  orchard 
is  within  the  reach  of  every  farmer,  by  as  plain  and  simple 
means  as  a  crop  of  potatoes.  .  For  position,  select  a  northern 
slope.  The  cardinal  conditions  of  success,  are  varieties,  prox- 
imity, and  culture.  Plant  "iron  clads,"  or  such  varieties  as 
are  known  to  be  hardy.  For  hardiness  and  ability  to  with- 
stand our  climatic  extremes,  the  following  varieties  can  be 
commended  : 

For  summer  apples,  Tetofsky,  Red  Astrachan,  Sops  of 
Wine,  Xodhead,  Early  Harvest,  and  Williams'  Favorite. 

For  fall  apples,  Duchess  of  Oldenburg,  Porter,  Graven- 
stein,  St.  Lawrence  and  Fameuse. 

For  winter  apples,  Northern  Spy,  Granite  Beauty,  Talman's 
Sweet,  Rhode  Island  Greening,  Baldwin,  and  Spitzenburgh. 
Of  crab  apples,  the  Dartmouth  and  Aucubafoila  are  upright 
growers,  large  and  handsome.    The  fruit  is  of  fair  eating  size. 

The  best  orchards  in  Aroostook  and  in  New  Brunswick, 
have  680  trees  to  an  acre.  A  very  prolific  orcliard  at  Orono, 
has  2,500  trees  on  five  acres.  Twelve  feet  apart,  each  way, 
will  give  302  trees  to  an  acre.  Ten  feet  apart,  435 ;  eight 
feet  apart,  680. 


Mr.  Soule  of  Gouldsborough,  one  of  our  oldest  and  most 
successful  orchardists,  says  :  "I  am  satisiied  there  is  no  part 
of  the  New  Enghmd  States,  where  better  fruit  can  be  grown, 
or  wliere  fruit  growing  can  be  made  more  profitable,  than  in 
Eastern  Maine."  Rev.  L.  Gott,  an  orchardist  of  large  expe- 
rience, and  a  close  observer,  writes,  "  there  is  quite  as  much 
in  the  soil,  mode  of  preparation,  planting  of  trees  and  proper 
care  afterward,  to  insure  success,  as  in  the  selection  of 
varieties."  • 

78.  Grai^es.  —  Grape  culture  has  received  but  limited 
attention.  Those  varieties  which  are  quite  sure  to  ripen  in 
"open"  culture,  are  the  Northern  Muscadine,  Clinton,  Hart- 
ford Prolific,  Delaware,  Rebecca,  Blood's  Seedling,  Adiron- 
dac  and  Salem.  The  Northern  Muscadine  has  a  foxy  taste, 
w^hich  is  objectionable,  while  the  Clinton  is  apt  to  mildew. 
With  little  care  and  at  slight  expense,  any  family  can  grow 
grapes  enough  for  domestic  use. 

79.  Oranherries, — There  are  thousands  of  acres  of  low, 
wet,  swampy  lands  in  the  county,. utterly  worthless  for  gen- 
eral cultivation,  that  are  admirably  suited  to  the  cranberry, 
and  when  we  remember  that  they  yield  from  100  to  400 
bushels  per  acre,  and  sell  for  from  two  dollars  to  six  dollars 
per  bushel,  it  is  a  wonder  that  no  more  of  such  worthless 
tracts  are  put  into  cranberries. 

Hundreds  of  bushels  of  cultivated  cranberries  are  grown  in 
Surry,  Lamoine,  Hancock,  Franklin  and  Eden,  with  lesser 
quantities  in  many  other  towns.  The  principal  varieties  cul- 
■tivated,  are  the  Cherry  and  the  Bell.  The  Cherry  is  the 
most  productive,  but  it  is  not  as  hardy  as  the  Bell.  It  is  an 
established  fact,  that  no  other  soil  than  the  alluvhun  soil, 
made  by  deposits  from  the  overflow  or  wash  of  water,  com- 
bined with  silex,  or  sand  (the  meal  of  granite) ,  will  success- 
fully grow  the  cranberry.  Considering  the  number  and 
extent  of  bogs  and  marshes  which  contain  silex,  or  sand  in 
the  desired  proportion,  the  growing  of  this  valuable  fruit 
must  become  one  of  our  best  future  industries.  The  power 
to  flood  or  drain  at  will,  insures  the  best  returns.     The  pro- 


ductiveness  of  a  patch,  in  most  cases,  is  largely  increased  by- 
sanding,  which  can  be  done  in  winter.  Beach  sand  is  the 

80.  Poultry. — The  production  of  eggs,  is  of  greater 
importance  than  people  imagine,  and  as  a  branch  of  domestic 
industry,  should  receive  great  care  and  attention.  The 
amount  produced  in  this  county  last  year  (1875)  is  not  a 
matter  of  estimate  only,  for  we  have  some  statistics  in  regard 
to  it.  The  quantity  of  eggs  received  by  the  dealers,  in  three 
towns,  last  year,  was  78,380  dozens,  which  in  the  same  pro- 
portion, give,  for  the  county,  640,000  dozens.  Large,  and 
wonderful  as  these  figures  are,  judging  from  shipments,  of 
which  no  data  can  be  had,  this  enormous  amount  is  below, 
rather  than  above,  the  actual  production.  While  the  eggs 
produced  in  the  great  State  of  New  York  do  not  one-half 
supply  the  consumption  of  New  York  Cit}''  alone,  it  is  safe  to 
assume  that  the  supply  will  not  glut  the  market. 

Orland  sent  to  market  77,800  dozen  Qgg^,  which  sold  at  an 
average  of  twenty-five  cents,  making  a  total  of  $19,450. 

For  breeds  we  have  Leghorn,  Black  Spanish,  Brahmas, 
Light  and  Dark,  and  "Natives,"  or  properly  Mongrels. 

AVhich  is  the  best  breed,  no  sane  writer,  without  an  "Acci- 
dent Life  Policy,"  will  presume  to'  say.  The  present  drift  of 
preferment,  is  toward  the  White  Leghorn  and  White  Brah- 
mas. Yet,  l)ut  few  of  our  farmers  ^have  come  to  realize  the 
value  of  a  breed,  or  of  the  net  cash  profit  of  hens,  when 
properly  fed  and  furnished.  My  experience  is,  that  there  is 
nothing  in  the  shape  of  live  stock  reared  on  our  farms,  con- 
sidering the  outlay,  that  compares  with  them  for  profit ;  yet 
very  many  only  look  upon  them  as  a  necessary  evil,  to  be 
endured  because  the  "  women  folks  want  them." 

81.  Butter. — Every  farmer's  wife  knows  how  to  make 
butter,  but  their  name  is  not  legion  that  can  make  the  "gilt- 
edged,"  or  even  an  article  which  will  keep  sweet  and  good 
for  a  year. 

Money  making  in  Imtter  making,  involves  a  judicious  selec- 
tion of  dairy  breeds ;  for  while   some  butter  can  be  made 


from  any  breed,'  certain  breeds  seem  to  be  gotten  up  specifi- 
cally for  that  unctuous  purpose.  Till  quite  recently,  no 
special  effort  has  been  made  to  introduce  a  class  of  purely 
dairy  animals.  Whatever  infusion  of  "  blood  "  there  may 
have  been,  has  been  with  special  reference  to  girt  and  weight, 
the  market  demand  being  for  large  and  heavy  oxen.  The 
growing  scarcity  of  lumber,  and  the  substitution  of  horses, 
have  removed  this  demand,  and  turned  attention  to  a  class  of 
stock  bred  for  dairy  purposes.  This  has  caused  the  introduc- 
tion of  many  animals  of  high  grade ;  but  the  only  "  Herd 
Register"  animals  are  Ayrshires,  by  Frank  Buck,  Orland ; 
Jersey,  by  H.  H.  Clark,  Tremont,  and  Shorthorns,  by  H. 
Davis,  Ellsworth.  Popular  favor  seems  to  lean  toward  a 
Jersey  grade. 

While  the  value  and  influence  of  thoroughbreds  are  of  prime 
importance,  and  should  not  be  undervalued,  the  management 
of  cows  is  no  less  a  first  requisite  to  successful  dairy  hus- 
bandry. One  not  having  given  close  attention  to  the  influ- 
ence of  abundant  and  good  feeding,  adapted  to  the  special 
object  of  producing  butter,  has  no  conception  of  how  much 
any  cow  can  be  made  to  increase  her  yield ;  nor  no  less 
prepared  are  most  dairymen  to  accept  the  difference  in  yield 
of  different  cows,  with  the  same  feed. 

The  difference  is  very  great ;  oftentimes  while  one  cow  is 
producing  a  hundred  pounds,  another  feeding  out  of  the  same 
crib,  is  making  but  fifty  pounds.  This  difference  is  attribu- 
table, chiefly,  to  two  causes  :  1st — Some  cows,  from  causes 
unknown,  appropriate  the  butterous  constituents  in  their  food 
to  fat,  or  as /we?,  to  keep  up  animal  heat,  or  to  some  purpose 
other  than  butter.  2d — In  all  milk  as  it  comes  from  the  cow, 
the  iDutter  particles  are  held  in  suspension,  or  are  floating  all 
through  the  "  mess."  With  the  milk  of  some,  as  soon  as  it  is 
at  rest,  all  of  the  butter  particles — oil-like — rise  to  the  sur- 
face as  cream ;  while  in  the  milk  of  others,  but  part  of  these 
particles  ever  reach  the  surface,  but  remain  floating  all 
through  the  "mess,"  and  are  lost,  unless  the  milk  is  churned. 
Strictly  speaking,  no  dairy-woman  ever  made  a  pound  of 



butter — for  it  comes  "  ready-made  "  from  the  cow — but  only- 
separated  it  from  milk  by  churning ;  and  a  complete  separa- 
tion, to  obtain  all  of  the  butter,  can  be  had  only  by  churning 
the  milk. 

As  a  rule,  it  is  safe  to  reckon  six  ounces  of  butter,  or 
fifteen  ounces  of  cheese,  from  a  gallon  of  milk.  With  the 
best  of  cows,  the  sweetest  feed,  and  the  purest  water,  the 
taste  and  flavor  of  butter  depends  on  the  mode  of  making. 

82,  Sheep. — In  1870  the  number  of  sheep  in  the  county 
was  28,000  less  than  it  was  in  1840 ;  and  yet,  it  is  one  of  the 
best  natural  sheep-ranges  in  New  England. 

If  there  may  be  "sermons  in  stones,"  there  are  whole  tones 
of  significance  in  these  figures  ;  for  by  a  subsequent  showing, 
the  decrease  in  sheep,  is  an  accurate  archetype  of  the  decrease 
of  the  staple  crops.  The  decrease  in  bushels  of  wheat,  and 
in  the  number  of  sheep,  about  the  same.  The  ratio  is  found 
to  hold  good  for  two  years,  or  for  thirty  years.  The  aggre- 
gate grain  crop,  wheat,  corn,  barley,  and  oats,  shows  for  the 
past  30  years,  a  per  cent,  of  loss  difiering  but  little  from  the 
per  cent,  of  loss  in  sheep  for  the  same  period.  This,  with 
other  facts,  evince  the  existence  of  an  umbilical  chord,  which 
extends  from  flocks  of  sheep  to  fruitfulness  of  land. 

Of  our  788,000  square  acres  of  land  area,  (after  deducting 
1-16  part  to  grow  fuel)  about  3-5,  or  443,000  square  acres, 
are  natural  grazing,  or  unnatural  plow-land ;  while  much  of 
it,  in  consequence  of  its  rough  surface,  and  its  coarse  herbage, 
is  valueless  except  for  sheep  pasturage. 

If  this  be  so,  why  had  we  48,000  sheep  in  1840,  and  only 
20,000  in  1870?  Simply  for  the  reason,  that  hitherto  our 
sheep-husbandry  has  been  pursued  exclusively  with  a  view  to 
the  groAvth  of  wool  rather  than  mutton.  To  produce  the  best 
of  mutton,  is  our  "rough  land  of  hill,  and  stone,  and  tree," 
pre-eminently  fitted.  These  thousands  of  acres  of  ours, 
briery,  bush}^  pastures,  should  be  stocked  with  Southdowns, 
the  best  of  mutton  breeds — hardy,  docile  and  prolific. 

Hundreds  of  these  waste  acres — 39  acres  to  one  sheep — 
stand  upon  the  assessor's  books  at  a  value  of  but  seventy 


cents  an  acre,  which  as  sheep  pastures  would  pay  an  interest 
of  from  $3.00  to  $7.00  an  acre,  provided  we  were  rid  of  our 
2,400  dogs. 

The  peculiar  adaptation  of  our  soil  and  climate  to  the  wants 
of  sheep,  is  such  that  they  are  not  liable  to  many  forms  of 
disease  ;  the  greatest  drawback  is  that  of  ill-bred  and  half-fed 
dogs.    We  tax  the  sheep,  and  why  don't  we  tax  the  dogs? 

83.  Weeds  of  Hancock — The  most  of  which  are  natives 
of  Europe,  are  : 

Buttercups,  .Yelloiv  Weed,  Ranunculusacrh. — A  foreigner. 
Most  abundant  in  moist  seasons.  It  has  become  thoroughly 
naturalized  all  over  the  county.  It  has  an  acrid  and  bitter 
taste.     A  perennial. 

Charlock,  Field  Mustard,  Brassica  Sinapistrum. — A  for- 
eigner. A  noxious  weed  in  grain  fields.  The  seeds  will  re- 
main in  the  ground  a  lifetime  without  losing  their  vitality. 
It  is  a  most  pestiferous  plant.     An  annual. 

Purslane,  Portulaca  oleracca. — An  American  weed.  One 
of  the  most  pernicious  of  garden  weeds.  Is  so  very  tena- 
cious of  life  that  it  will  grow  after  having  been  kept  out  of 
the  ground  for  weeks.     Rare  in  the  county.     Annual. 

Five  Finger,  Cinquefoil,  Potentilla  Canadensis. — A  worth- 
less plant,  except  for  sheep.  Its  presence  indicates  a  soil  want- 
ing in  lime.  Most  common  in  badly  cultivated  lields.  A 

Caraway,  Carum  carui. — When  it  escapes  cultivation  it 
spreads  rapidly,  and  becomes  a  troublesome  weed  in  grass 
fields.  It  should  be  carefully  kept  within  bounds.  Cattle 
will  not  eat  it. 

Roman  Wormvjood,  Pag  Weed,  Bitter  Weed,  Ambrosia, 
artemisivefolia. — This,  in  grain  fields,  is  one  of  the  worst  of 
weeds.  The  seed  will  live  in  soil  for  years,  and  is  ready  to 
grow  whenever  the  land  is  plowed.     An  annual. 

Beggar's  Lice,  Stick  Seed,  Echimrpernum  lappula. — A 
vexatious  and  obnoxious  native  weed,  entangling  the  manes 


of  horses  and  the  fleeces  of  sheep.  It  tells  of  slovenly  farm- 
iuff.     An  annual. 

May  Weed,  Dog's  Fennel,  Tetla  Chamomile,  Maruta 
Gotula. — Came  from  Europe.  Common  in  door-yards.  Is 
employed  as  a  substitute  for  chamomile.  Will  drive  away 
fleas.     An  annual. 

Common  Tarrow,  MUfoil,  Snerzeioort,  AchiUea,  Mille- 
folium.— A  foreigner.  Bad  on  account  of  its  creeping  roots. 
An  ointment  is  made  from  the  leaves  for  scab  in  sheep.  A 

WJiife  Weed,  Ox-Eyed  Daisy,  Leucanthemum  vulgare. — 
This  omnipresent  weed  is  an  old  acquaintance.  The  seeds 
will  germinate  after  passing  through  all  animals  but  sheep. 
A  single  root  can  produce  15,000  seeds.     A  perennial. 

Ohio  Daisy,  Cone  Flower,  Rudhechia  hiekta. — llecently 
introduced  in  Western  grass  seed.  Flowers  large,  showy  and 
yellow.  Disk  purple.  Stem  like  white  weed.  It  is  a  foul 
weed,  and  the  utmost  care  should  be  taken  to  eradicate  it. 
A  perennial. 

Canada  Thistle,  Cursed  T.  Cirsium  arvense. — The  worst 
weed  to  destroy  we  have.  Brought  from  Scotland  to  Canada 
200  years  ago,  and  sowed  in  a  flower  garden.  A  former  not 
destroying  thistles  in  his  grounds  should  pay  for  keeping  a 
nuisance.     A  perennial. 

Burdock.  La/ppa  officinalis. — A  homely  wood,  not  com- 
mon. The  burs  often  become  entangled  in  the  wool  of  sheep. 
The  bruised  leaves  are  said  to  be  good  for  hysterics.  It  is 
easily  eradicated.     A  biennial. 

Puke  Weed,  Indian  Tobacco,  Eye  Bright,  Lobelia, 
Lobelia  inflata. — A  native.  Not  troublesome.  Botanical 
doctors  employ  it  in  medicine.  A  remedy  for  lambs  poisoned 
with  lambkill.  Said  to  cause  the  "  slabbering "  of  horses. 
An  annual. 

Pig  Weed.  Chenopodinm  album. —  The  rapidity  with 
which  this  weed  can  multiply  is  astonishing.  A  single  pig 
weed  will  ripen  10,000  seeds,  giving  in  a  fifth  year's  progeny 
plants  enough  to  cover  18,365,472,910  acres.     An  annual. 

56  hancock  county. 

Smart  Weed,  Lady's  Thumb,  Spotted  Knot-Weed, 
Polygonum  Persicaria. — Came  from  Europe.  It  is  a  worth- 
less weed,  and  is  increasing  in  cultivated  fields.  The  juice 
causes  an  inflammation  of  the  skin.     An  annual. 

SoREEL,  Rumex  Acctosella.  A  foreigner ;  as  contemptible 
and  quite  as  despicable  as  witch  grass.  Its  presence  does 
not  indicate  that  the  soil  is  sour,  and  needs  an  alkali.  Its 
extirpation  is  by  high  cultivation.     A  perennial. 

Barn  Grass,  Cook-foot  Panicum,  Panicum  crus-galU. — 
Came  from  Europe.  When  it  has  once  got  a  good  foot-hold 
its  eradication  requires  the  patience  of  Job.  It  is  by  all  odds 
the  worst  of  our  garden  pests.     An  annual. 

Lambkill,  Sheep  Laurel,  Kahnia  angustifolia. — This 
shrub,  rather  than  weed,  is  deadly  poisonous  to  sheep  and 
lambs,  Scribner  to  the  contrary,  notwithstanding.  It  is  very 
troublesome  in  many  sections  of  the  county. 

Fall  Dandelion,  Hawbit,  Leontodon  autumndle. — This 
weed  is  being  widely  disseminated  throughout  the  county. 
Its  blossoms  appear  just  after  haying,  and  continue  until  the 
frosts.     A  peren^iial. 

Witch  Grass,  Conch  Grass,  Quack  Grass,  Dog  Grass, 
Chandler  Grass,  Triticum  rej)ens. — As  a  troublesome  weed 
all  others  pass  into  insignificance.  Makes  the  best  of  hay  if 
cut  early  and  properly  cured.     A  perennial. 

Two  of  the  pernicious  weeds,  the  Ohio  Daisy  and  the  Fall 
Dandelion,  are  rapidly  spreading  over  the  county.  The 
former,  with  pains-taking,  can  be  checked  and  perhaps  eradi- 
cated ;  the  ways  of  the  latter  seem  "  past  finding  out." 

84.  Insect  Enemies  in  Hancock. — Good  farmers  or  bad, 
we  are  not  without  a  full  quota  of  insect  denizens,  injurious 
to  vegetation, — bugs,  borers,  beetles,  grasshoppers,  cater- 
pillars, cut-worms  and  plant  lice.  Those  most  annoying  and 
destructive,  are  apple  tree  borers,  apple  tree  caterpillars, 
codling-moths,  oyster-shell  lice,  striped  bug,  turnip  beetle, 
cabbage,  cut  and  currant  worms. 


Almost  all,  our  worst  foes,  have  been  imported  from  the 
other  side  of  the  Atlantic,  aud  new  ones,  which  come,  are 
imported  in  some  way.  The  annual  damage  done  by  insects, 
within  the  limits  of  the  United  States,  is  estimated  at 

The  Borer  (Saperda  hivittata)  is  ruining  many  an  orchard 
where  his  presence  is  not  suspected.  A  little  scratch,  like 
that  of  a  pin,  is  made  in  the  bark  near  the  ground,  and  an 
Qgg  deposited  there  by  a  miller  in  July.  This  soon  hatches, 
and  the  young  worm  gnaws  its  way  through  the  bark.  At 
this  time  it  can  easily  be  destroyed.  If  they  escape  notice 
the  first  season,  the  second  year  they  live  out  of  sight,  upon 
the  newly  formed  wood,  and  are  doing  the  damage.  In  about 
thirty-five  months  from  the  time  of  entering  the  tree,  it 
emerges  a  fully  grown  miller.  The  parent  miller  of  the  borer 
is  rarely  seen  by  day.  One  would  be  surprised,  at  knowing 
that  so  many  fruit  trees  are  destroyed  by  this  pest. 

Oyster  Shell  Louse. — Everything  considered,  this  insect 
is  the  most  pernicious  and  destructive  to  the  apple  tree  of  any 
insect  in  our  county.  These  lice  cover  the  limbs  and  twigs 
with  little  oval  shells,  resembling  half  a  grain  of  flaxseed, 
which  are  the  lying-in  houses,  in  each  of  which  are  deposited 
from  20  to  40  eggs.  These  begin  to  hatch,  in  this  region, 
about  the  middle  of  June.  The  insect  itself  is  very  small, 
and  looks  like  a  speck  of  bluish  mould.  They  are  active 
only  a  few  days.  At  this  time  they  can  be  destroyed.  A 
wash  of  soapsuds,  in  which  tobacco  has  been  steeped,  and 
blue  clay  added,  applied  when  the  little  specks  can  be  seen, 
is  sure  death  to  them.  Applications  at  all  other  times  are 

The  Tent  Caterpillar. — Constant  vigilance  is  required 
to  keep  trees  freed  from  the  troublesome  creatures.  The 
eggs  are  contained  in  cylindrical  clusters,  in  tough,  leathery, 
varnished  coverings,  which  contain  several  hundred  eggs. 

The  Codling  Moth  seems  on  the  increase.  This  is  the 
insect  which  causes  wormy  apples.  The  best  known  method 
to  check  their  increase  is  to  suspend  vials  of  sweetened  water, 


in  which  hundreds  of  the  parent  hisects  will  be  drowned,  and 
in  keeping  the  bark  smooth  and  thrifty. 

The  Stiuped  Bug. — This  ubiquitous  pest  annually  destroys 
thousands  of  dollars'  worth  of  squash  aud  cucumber  vines. 
They  often  commence  their  work  by  nipping  off  the  young 
sprouts  before  they  are  even  out  of  the  ground.  Innumerable 
renjedies  have  been  published,  but  the  only  sure  safeguards 
are  cheap  boxes,  open  at  the  bottom  and  covered  with  milli- 
net  on  the  top. 

The  Turnip  Beetle,  or  little  black  bug.  These  are  rarely 
destructive  when  marine  manures  are  used,  especially  porgie 

The  Cabbage  Worm. — Of  all  the  insects  that  infest  the 
cabbage,  that  valuable  esculent,  the  most  mischievous  is  the 
recently  imported  green  worm.  The  French  call  it  the  "heart 
worm."  These  come  from  the  Rape  Butterfly,  the  bane  of 
every  cabbage  grower  of  Europe.  The  cabbage  is  a  marine 
plant,  and  the  growing  of  them  might  be  made  a  very  lucra- 
tive business  in  each  of  our  twenty-one  towns,  which  border 
on  the  salt  sea,  if  some  method  could  be  devised  to  destroy 
or  check  the  increase  of  the  exceedingly  noxious  rape  butter- 
flies. It  is  said  they  were  brought  from  France  to  Quebec  in 
1858,  since  which  time  they  have  so  increased  as  to  destroy, 
in  Quebec,  in  one  year,  $240,000  worth  of  cabbages.  They 
iare  said  to  have  first  reached  this  State,  at  Bangor,  in  1868. 
This  is  an  error,  for  the  writer  saw  thousands  of  them  in  a 
cabbage  field  of  Gideon  Cook's,  in  Waltham,  in  1861.  Not 
until  about  1870  did  their  havoc  attract  attention  about  the 
mouth  of  Union  river,  since  which  they  have  become  very 
numerous,  and  till  some  preventive  can  be  found  they  promise 
to  eflfectually  bar  the  cultivation  of  this  highly  esteemed  jjlant. 
Richard  Perkins,  of  Lamoine,  informs  me  that  where  he  has 
applied  salt  herring  scrap,  the  cabbages  escaped  the  ravages 
of  this  much  to  be  dreaded  pest ;  and  his  neighbor,  Warren 
King,  had  a  like  experience.  The  rape  butterfly  is  a  slow, 
lumbering  fly,  and  may  easily  be  caught. 


The  Sawfly  or  Currant  Worm. — ^This  terrible  pest,  which 
thus  far  has  baffled  every  effort  to  arrest  its  waste  of  destruc- 
tion, is  a  newly  imported  insect.  It  is  said  to  have  appeared 
in  the  neighborhood  of  Kochester,  N.  Y.  They  have  come 
eastward  at  the  rate  of  about  twenty-five  miles  a  year,  reach- 
ing here  in  1870.  They  threaten  a  complete  destruction  of 
our  currant  and  gooseberry  bushes.  To  prevent  their  rava- 
ges, we  have  applied  white  hellebore,  carbolate  of  lime,  car- 
bolic acid,  lime  and  cayenne,  but  each  is  alike  ineffectual.  An 
application  of  milk  gives  some  show  of  success.  It  is  safe  to 
say,  that  already  they  have  destroyed  four-fifths  of  the  cur- 
rant bushes  in  the  county. 

85.  Eeal  and  Ideal  Farm  Productions. — The  following 
citation  of  figures,  will  give  some  idea  of  the  vast  dispropor- 
tion which  exists  between  the  actual  and  the  possible  farm 
productions  : 

In  1870,  the  crop  acreage  of  the  county  Avas — in  hay,  65,306 
acres  ;  actual  yield  half  ton  per  acre,  or  five  acres  required 
to  winter  a  cow.  A  possible  yield  of  2  tons  per  acre,  require 
1^  acres  to  winter  a  cow. 

In  potatoes,  1,892  acres  ;  actual  yield  117  bushels,  at  fifty 
cents  a  bushel,  $58.50  per  acre.  A  possible  yield,  200  bushels 
per  acre,  or  $100  to  an  acre. 

In  barley,  1,691  acres  ;  actual  ^neld  16  bushels,  at  90  cents, 
$17.50  per  acre.  A  possible  yield  of  30  bushels,  $32.83  per 

In  oats,  1,637  acres;  actual  yield  21  bushels  per  acre,  at 
60  cents,  $12.62  per  acre.  A  possible  3'ield  of  36  bushels, 
at  same  price,  $21.53  per  acre. 

Of  butter,  reported  yield  92  pounds  per  cow,  at  40  cents, 
$36.80  per  cow.  A  possible  product  of  250  pounds,  same 
price,  $100  per  cow,  or  for  "gilt-edged"  butter,  at  75  cents, 
$187.50  per  cow. 

A  ton  of  hay  fed  to  the  first  named  cow,  would  give  18 
pounds  of  butter,   or  $7.20  a  ton  for  the  hay;  while  hay  to 


the  second  cow  would  give  45  pounds  of  butter,  or  $18.24 
per  ton  for  the  hay. 

An  aggregate  average  of  the  above  citation  gives  an  in- 
crease of  more  than  200  per  cent. ,  without  going  far  into  the 
circle  of  possibilities. 

What  the  possible  scope  of  our  acreable  productions  are, 
may  be  demonstrated  by  what  has  been  done  ;  and  what  has 
been  done  may  be  repeated. 

In  1872,  Peter  C.  Baker,  of  Orringtou,  grew  58  bushels  of 
Lost  Nation  wheat,  upon  one  acre  ;  which,  at  $1.90  a  bushel, 
is  $110.20  per  acre.  The  same  culture  applied  to  our  area  in 
wheat,  in  1874,  would  give  a  cash  return  of  $29,570,  in  lieu 
of  what  it  was,  $5,600. 

Take  butter : — At  present  the  average  is  109  jDounds  per 
cow.  With  a  yield  of  300  pounds  per  cow — not  rare  for 
Jerseys,  Ayrshires,  or  well  fed  "natives" — would  give  $120 
for  the  cash  product  of  a  cow.  The  famous  "Ingalls  cow," 
owned  by  Hon.  H.  Belcher,  Somerset  county,  produced  at 
the  rate  of  1,095  pounds. 

The  present  average  yield  per  acre,  of  our  grain  and  hoed 
crops,  is  $5.78.  For  more  years  than  one,  Jesse  Dutton  of 
Ellsworth,  has  sold  for  cash,  more  than  $200  worth  of  field 
crops  from  an  acre.  One  season  Benjamin  Shute  of  North 
Hancock,  grew  $127  worth  of  onions  on  a  half  acre.  In  five 
years,  G.  H.  Emerson  of  No.  Castine,  carried  an  8  acre  field 
from  2i  tons  to  21  tons  :  while  Monroe  Young,  on  the  old 
Harding  farm  in  Trenton,  and  Charles  Macomber,  on  the  old 
Springer  farm  in  Franklin,  have  increased  their  hay  crops 
nearly  600  per  cent. 

The  "possibilities,"  which  might  be  multiplied,  show  what 
our  soil  can  produce  when  its  dormant  capabilities  are  stirred 
into  activity. 

It  is  well  for  such  as  are  short  of  manure  to  know  that  an 
application  of  nitrogen,  potash,  phosphoric  acid,  will  grow 
extraordinary  crops.  These,  in  the  cheap  form  of  sulphate 
of  ammonia,  muriate  of  potash,  and  superphosphate,  can  be 
had  of  most  dealers  in  chemicals. 


86.  Of  Flowers. — Rer.  L.  Gott,  of  West  Ellsworth,  who 
knows  whereof  he  affirms,  writes  as  follows  : 

"A  good  many  men  in  our  county  seem  to  think  that  culti- 
vating flowers  wont  pay,  and  have  turned  that  department  of 
agriculture  over  to  the  ladies.  Flowers  succeed  best  in  sandy 
loam,  made  rich  with  well  decomposed  manure,  thoroughly 
mixed.  Clay  soils  would  be  very  much  benefitted  with  a 
mixture  of  loam,  and  to  be  well  spaded  in  the  fall.  What 
are  generally  termed  'half-hardy,'  by  the  seedsmen,  will 
grow  nicely  in  such  a  soil,  with  the  requisite  knowledge  in 
planting  and  getting  the  seed  up. 

Hardy  Annuals. — Ageratum,  varieties  ;  Antirrhinum, 
Argemone  ;  Asters,  German  and  French,  varieties  ;  Balsams, 
half-hardy.  Rose;  Camekia  and  Carnation,  flowered  ;  Cacalia, 
Balliopsis,  varieties,  beautiful ;  Candytuft,  Catchfly,  Clarkia, 
Convolvulus,  Delphimum,  annual.  Dianthus,  Japan  and 
China,  varieties.  Eschscholtzia,  varieties  ;  Gaillardia,  Gilia, 
varieties  ;  Hibiscus  Africanus  ;  Lavatera,  Linum,  scarlet  and 
white ;  Lupine,  Malope,  half-hardy ;  Marigold,  varieties, 
half-hardy ;  Mignonette,  Mirabilis,  half-hardy ;  Nasturtium, 
varieties ;  Nemophila,  Nigella,  Nolano,  Pansy,  English  and 
German;  Petunia,  varieties,  splendid;  Phlox  Drummondii, 
varieties  ;  Portulaca,  double  and  single,  varieties ;  Schizan- 
thus,  half-hardy ;  Stock,  Ten  Weeks,  varieties ;  Verbena, 
Whitlavia,  Zinnia,  Morning  Glory. 

Everlasting  Floioers. — The  most  of  them  are  half-hardy, 
but  have  been  successfully  grown  by  me.  Good  for  winter 
boquets,  etc.  Acroclinium,  varieties  ;  Gomphrena,  Helichry- 
sum,  Helipterum,  varieties  ;  Rhodanthe,  Xeranthemum. 

Biennials  and  Perennials. — Aconitum,  roots  poisonous ; 
Aquilegia,  varieties ;  Chrysanthemum,  late ;  Delphinium, 
varieties ;  Hollyhock,  varieties  ;  Hesperis,  Lychnis,  varie- 
ties ;  Pentstemon,  Sweet  William,  Helianthus,  roots  should 
be  put  in  the  cellar  winters. 

All  of  the  above  flowers  have  been  successfully  grown  on 
my  grounds.  Some  are  more  showy  than  others,  but  all  of 
them  worthy  of  a  place. 


Hardy  Bulbs  and  tuberous  Hoots. — Tulips  should  be  in 
every  flower  garden.  Dicentra  Spectabilis,  Peony,  varieties. 
Lilies.  Bulbs  and  tubers  that  require  to  be  kept  in  the  cellar 
over  winter. — Gladiolus,  varieties,  splendid;  Dahlia,  quite 
common;  Maderia  vine,  Tigridia,  varieties.  The  above 
varieties  can  be  orovvn  in  this  county  with  good  results.  The 
Gladioli  family  deserves  a  more  extended  cultivation." 

Manufacturing  Industries,  etc. — As  an  unabridged  list 
of  the  manufacturing  and  mechauical  industries  would  con- 
sume a  space  wholly  disproportionate  to  the  impoi-tance  of 
the  information  conveyed,  such  a  comparative  aggregate  only 
,  is  given  as  may  show  by  the  drift  of  the  past  the  trend  of  the 

In  1860  the  total  product  of  the  fisheries  was  $236,000  ;  in 
1870,  $202,000.     The  loss  is  in  the  Grand  Bank  fishing. 

In  1860  the  total  product  of  wrought  granite  was  $60,000  ; 
in  1870,  $175,000.  Total  product  of  bricks  in  1860,  none; 
in  1870,  $38,000. 

In  1860,  ice,  none;  in  1873,  $12,000;  in  1875,  $21,000. 

Total  product  of  all  industries  to  each  hand  employed  in 
1860,  $667;  in  1870,  $1,500.  This  diff'erence  is  not  due  to 
an  increase  of  manufacturing  establishmeuts,  but  to  greater 
skill  and  improved  machinery. 

In  1870  it  required  113  men  to  saw  as  much  lumber  as  100 
men  in  1860.  The  increased  distance  which  saw-logs  have 
to  ])e  brought,  notwithstanding  the  increase  in  market  price 
within  the  last  decade,  has  reduced  the  net  product  13  per 
cent,  in  ten  years.  The  cost  of  "  driving"  and  the  greater 
number  of  logs  required  to  "scale"  a  thousand,  are  growing 
"outs"  which  narrow  the  margin  of  profit.  When  the  lumber 
is  exhausted,  and  it  is  only  a  question  of  time,  artisan-skill 
and  manufacturing  energy  will  shape  a  new  industrial  S3^stem. 

87.  Climatological. — An  abstract  of  the  thcrmomctrical 
observations  taken  at  !^urry,  by  Oscar  Tripp,  shows  the  aver- 
age degree  of  greatest  cold  for  4  years  was  12°20'  below  zero, 
the  average  of  greatest  heat  for  the  same  4  years,  was  92° 


Fahrenheit ;  the  mean  siminicr  temperature  for  the  same  4 
years  was  67°  21',  and  the  yearly  mean  44°  44'.  The  annual 
avera<>-e  of  temperature  in  the  State,  as  ascertained  at  the 
Observatory  in  Portland,  was  43°23'.  The  highest  tempera- 
ture was  102°  ;  the  lowest,  30°  below.  Thus  it  is  shown  that 
the  "rise  and  fall"  of  the  mercury,  or  the  extremes  of  tem- 
perature, are  less  than  for  the  §tate.  The  proximity  of  the 
ocean  diminishes  both  the  summer's  heat  and  the  winter's 

Hancock  county  being  a  strictly  maritime  region,  tidal 
waters  bordering  on  three  of  its  sides,  with  an  unusually 
large  inland  water  surface,  and  its  continental  position  being 
in  the  meridian  of  contact  between  the  polar  drift  and  Gulf 
Stream  current,  serve  to  produce  a  humid,  vaporous  atmos- 
phere, with  a  greater  number  of  hazy,  misty  and  foggy  days, 
than  otherwise  are  due  to  such  an  hydrographic  area. 

The  moist,  cool,  and  relatively  low  temperature  of  the  sum- 
mer, exempt  this  county  from  the  malignant  form  of  malari- 
ous diseases. 

Those  which  contribute  to  the  annual  mortality  are  of  a 
respiratory,  or  pulmonary  character.  Of  this  class  of  dis- 
eases, 27  per  cent,  of  the  fatality  are  due  to  consumption, 
and  15  per  cent,  to  typhus  types  of  fever,  leaving  58  per 
cent,  as  chargeable  to  some  one  of  the  remaining  122  diseases 
commissioned  to  break  the  "thread"  of  human  life. 

Consumption,  the  great  destroyer  here,  as  elsewhere,  is 
classified  as  an  "endemic"  disease,  its  excessively  destructive 
force  being  supposed  to  be  due  to  some  local  cause.  A  search 
for  the  local  cause  should  be  neither  in  the  humid  airs  swept 
over  us  by  summer  drafts,  nor  in  the  vapor-condensing  winds 
from  the  Bay  of  Fundy,  but  in  the  variously  contaminated  air 
of  our  non-ventilated  dwellings.  The  wonder  is,  not  that  so 
man}',  but  that  so  few  die  of  consumption,  when  so  little  re- 
gard is  had  to  the  purity  of  the  air  we  breathe.  When  the 
dwelling  houses  are  so  arranged  that  there  is  no  deficiency  of 
pure,  well  oxygenated  air,  day  nnd  night,  the  decrease  in  con- 
sumption's death-rate  will  be  astonishing. 


This  matter  of  ventilation  has  been  mystified,  when  its 
principles  are  simple.  Air  enters  at  a  lower  orifice,  and 
passes  out  at  a  higher. 

88.  Social  Statistics. — The  uncertain  relation  which 
assessed  values  bear  to  selling  values,  the  habits  of  assessment 
in  the  respective  towns,  with  the  non-determinable  dilference 
in  "  undervaluation,"  and  the  wide  difiference  in  the  amount  of 
property,  which  by  "  exemption  "  and  evasion  escape  taxation, 
give  great  uncertainty  to  all  comparative  taxable  statistics. 

Column  1,  shows  the  per  capita  wealth,  as  per  the  assessed 

Column  2,  shows  the  per  capita  wealth  as  per  the  census 

Column  3,  shows  the  pauper  levy  on  each  $1,000  as  the 
taxable  value. 

Column  4,  shows  the  pauper  levy  on  each  $1,000  of  the 
real  value. 

Column  5,  shows  the  proportion  of  population,  more  than 
"  three  score  and  ten." 


-    .1165  00 

#220  00 

$3  78 

$2  52 


Aurora,     - 

155  00 

206  00 

5  12 

3  52 



-      200  00 

266  00 

2  62 

1  75 



225  00 

300  00 

1  82 

1  22 



-      190  00 

253  00 

4  14 

2  76 



360  00   ■ 

480  00 




Cranberrj-  Isles, 

-      255  00 

340  00 




Castine,    - 

355  00 

470  00 

4  19 

2  80 


Deer  Isle, 

-      120  00 

150  00 

4  31 

2  88 



230  00 

306  00 





-      175  00 

233  00 

5  60 

3  74 



235  00 

313  00 

3  24 

2  16 


Eastbrook,    - 

-      225  00 

300  00 





165  00 

220  00 

4  75 

3  17 



-      130  00 

173  00 

2  22 

1  49 



170  00 

226  00 

4  10 

2  77 



-      232  00 

309  00 

2  45 

1  64 


Mt.  Desert, 

175  00 

233  00 

4  42 

2  98 


Mariaville,     - 

-      180  00 

240  00 




Orland,     - 

280  00 

273  00 

2  93 

1  96 



-      110  00 

146  00 

1  80 

1  20 



148  00 

197  00 

5  52 

3  68 



Sullivan,       -  -  -     $195  00         .'«i280  00      $4  79      f3  20        1-31 

Surry.     '  -  -  -  172  00  292  00        2  28        1  52       .1-24 

Sedgwick,     -  -  -      180  00  240  00        2  52        1  68        1-17 

Tremont,  -  -  145  00    .        193  00  -  -  - 

Trenton.        -  -  -      175  00  223  00        1  15  77        1-19 

Waltham,  -  -  100  00  213  00  -  -  - 

Verona.  -  -  -      109  00  213  00        1  40  98        1-88 

By  this  showing,  a  thirtieth  of  our  people  are  "70  past." 
This  may  be  a  good  show  for  longevity,  but  it  is  a  bad  one 
for  emigration,  for  it  surely  tells  that  the  old  folks  are  left 
at  home,  and  the  young  folks  have  gone  West. 

89.  Our  Industrial  Needs. — That  which  looms  up  the 
most  conspicuous,  and  stands  marked  in  the  boldest  outline, 
is  the  need  of  a  railroad.  This  is  the  tirst  essential  to  the  in- 
dustrial development  of  our  county.  Our  vast  water  power, 
practically  neglected,  presents  no  attractions  for  the  investi- 
ture of  capital ;  nor  can  we  hope  for  any  new  strides  in  man- 
ufactures, or  for  the  introduction  of  ncAV  industries,  while  our 
"spotted  lines"  compete  with  the  iron  horse.  Such  a  compe- 
tition is  too  matchless  to  be  ridiculous.  Nor  can  our  agricul- 
ture prosper  without  home  markets,  nor  can  there  be  home 
markets  without  home  industries.  So  long  as  we  are  without 
that  prime  necessity — a  railway — so  long  must  we  endure  the 
pains  and  pangs  of  our  chronic  embarrassments. 

The  next  industrial  need  is  a  reformatory  agriculture.  At 
the  present,  our  agriculture  seems  to  lay  becalmed  between 
the  grain  growing  trade-winds  of  the  past,  and  the  hay  pro- 
ducing trade-winds  of  the  future ;  or  in  slow  transition  be- 
twixt an  agriculture  destroyed,  and  an  agriculture  restored. 
The  period  of  sluggish  inaction,  is  really  a  needed  healthful 
state  of  repose.  It  must  run  its  course  to  reach  a  remedy, 
and  to  dispel  old  illusions. 

Guided  by  the  discernible  landmarks  in  the  future,  our  in- 
telligent farmers  will  steer  a  course,  "however  the  winds  blow 
or  waves  churn,"  which  leads  to  the  production  and  supply  of 
those  articles  for  which  our  soils  are  best  fitted,  and  wherein 
there  can  be  the  least  competitors.     The  law  of  markets  is 

the  only  law  which  admits  of  no  exception.     That  law  shows 


that  the  least  competition  comes  from  animal  products  ;  nor  is 
there  any  prospect  of  a  keen  competition  in  the  Great  West 
for  the  four  products  of  butter,  cheese,  eggs  and  mutton. 
In  the  production  of  these,  and  at  remunerative  prices,  our 
farmers  can  set  at  defiance  the  rest  of  mankind. 

Another  need  is  labor  saving  appliances.  The  idea  that  a 
farm  can't  be  profitably  worked  with  hired  help,  is  firmly 
rooted.  The  wages  which  our  mills,  ship-yards,  quarries, 
vessels,  and  kindred  industries  can  afford,  are  too  inflated  for 
the  farmers  ;  while  fiirms  worked  by  muscular  labor  have 
so  much  of  apparent  drudgery,  that  wage-laborers  instinc- 
tively shun  it. 

No  reform  can  be  of  greater  utility,  than  such  a  one  as 
shall  give  use  to  these  "  infringements,"  labor-saving  imple- 
ments for  economizing  labor,  thereby  rendering  it  more  pro- 
ductive, and  by  reducing  the  cost  of  production,  increasing 
the  net  profit.  Labor-saving  machinery  is  the  great  present 
need  of  our  farmers,  to  elevate  their  pursuit  from  degrading 
physical  toil  to  one  of  dignity  in  the  social  scale. 

Another  need  is,  some  incentive  to  harness  our  numerous 
water-falls  to  factory  wheels,  and  thus  convert  them  into 
engines  of  labor  to  construct  raw  materials  into  the  multiplied 
forms  of  finished  product,  known  to  civilized  life,  thereby 
continually  renewing  and  continually  increasing  our  material 

A  restocking  our  ponds  with  edible  fish  is,  from  any  p(unt 
of  observation,  a  most  pressing  need.  The  amount  of  easily 
attainable  food,  wholesome,  appetizing  and  cheap,  which 
our  deserted  waters  might  be  made  to  produce,  at  a  price 
relatively  low  to  the  cost  of  production,  has  until  quite 
recently  escaped  unseen. 

To  enumerate  all  of  our  needs,  or  portray  all  of  our  natural 
resources,  would  involve  an  herculean  labor.  Our  water 
power,  which  now  furnishes  employment  to  but  a  thousand 
or  more,  when  utilized  to  its  full  capacity,  would  call  in  more 
than  a  million  souls.  With  such  an  increase  in  population, 
how^  all  of  the  pulses  of  industry  would  throb  wath  a  fresher 


life.  How  the  creation  of  home  markets  would  throw  out 
streams  of  agricultural  prosperity,  and  irrigate  the  whole 
laud  with  fertility.  And  when  its  inexhaustible  quarries  of 
granite,  marble  and  quartz  ;  its  annuall}^  recurring  ice-fields  ; 
its  plastic  clay,  and  its  immense  fish  pasture  are  in  full  blast, 
and  operated  on  recognized  business  principles,  who  has 
prophetic  inspiration  to  forecast  the  wealth  and  prosperity 
of  our  county  ? 

We  repeat,  the  greatest  of  our  industrial  needs  is  a  shore- 
line raih-oad,  having  its  western  terminus  at  either  Castine  or 
Bucksport,  both  of  which  have  open  winter  harbors.  During 
the  hyperborean  winter  of  1874-5,  for  a  few  weeks,  the  ice 
embargoed  both  of  these  ports,  but  it  is  an  embargo  which 
the  Frost  King  makes  but  twice  in  a  century. 

Statistics  of  Towns. 

92.  To  ray  own  personal  knowledge,  I  thought  it  proper 
to  add  the  testimony  of  others  whose  experience  and  obser- 
vation are  such  as  to  enable  them  to  speak  advisedly.  To 
this  end,  letters  were  addressed  to  residents  in  each  town  in 
the  county,  in  which,  among  other  inquiries,  were  the  follow- 
ing : 

1st.  The  industrial  establishments,  other  than  lumber 

2d.     The  kind  of  neat  stock,  sheep  and  poultry. 

3d.     The  varieties  of  apples  proving  hardy  and  productive. 

4th.     Minerals,  and  natural  curiosities. 

5th.     Character  of  the  soil. 

6th.     Number  living  exclusively  by  farming. 

7th.     Yearly  cost  of  poor. 

8th.     Number  of  inhabitants  70  years  of  age,  and  over. 

In  almost  every  instance,  prompt  replies  were  made.  My 
design  originally  was,  to  print  the  responses  verbatim,  but 
several  having  expressed  an  unwillingness  to  grant  that  lib- 
erty, I  have  incorporated  into  the  appropriate  sub-division, 
the  cream  of  the  replies. 


Herewith  are  appended  the  names  of  those  who  have  aided 
me  by  their  contributions  :  Dr.  Joseph  L.  Stevens,  George 
V.  Mills,  David  Wasson,  George  L.  Hosmer,  Hon.  Wyer  G. 
Sargent,  Otis  W.  Herrick,  Wm.  Conary,  Joseph  M.  Hutchins, 
B.  W.  Darling,  Luther  Lord,  Oscar  Tripp,  Frank  Buck, 
Rev.  L.  Gott,  Chas.  H.  Atkins,  Hosea  B.  Wardwell,  Rev.  H. 
S.  Loring,  Chas.  P.  Silsby,  Chas.  Otis,  John  S.  Parsons,  N. 
H.  McFarland,  Wm.  H.  Guptill,  Dr.  Robert  Grindle,  H.  M. 
Soule,  Richard  Perkins,  A.  B.  Berry,  A.  C.  Miliken,  Hon. 
Warren  King,  Hon.  Wm.  W.  Bragdon,  Leonard  J.  Thomas, 
H.  S.  Trevett,  Henry  N.  Butler,  Hon.  W.  E.  Hadlock,  L. 
D.  Jordan,  C.  Wasgatt,  E.  B.  Babson,  J.  C.  Chilcott,  Hon. 
A.  H.  Whitmore,  S.  T.  Hinks,  et  als. 

The  deductions  drawn  from  the  correspondence  are  ; 

1st.  The  number  of  saw-mills  reported,  show  that  no 
branch  of  our  manufacturing  industry  calls  for  more  capital 
or  employs  so  many  hands.  Although  the  'old  growth'  is 
nearly  subdued,  and  the  days  of  "up-and-down"  saws  are 
nearly  out  of  "cut,"  the  humidity  of  our  climate  gives  such  a 
vigor  and  persistency  to  forest  vegetation,  that  treelets  swarm 
into  occupancy  of  the  cleared  lands,  and  dense  "second'' 
growths  supply  stock  for  stave,  shingle  and  box  mills.  For 
some  years  to  come  will  he  at  the  "head-stock,"  and  he  at  the 
"tail-stock"  ply  their  vocation.  Says  Dr.  Grindle  in  his  reply, 
"  I  believe  it  would  be,  in  the  end,  a  great  blessing  to  our  peo- 
ple if  lumber  were  to  become  so  cheap  in  the  market  that  it 
would  not  pay  to  get  it ;  for  when  lumbering  will  not  afford 
a  living  they  will  turn  their  attention  to  some  business  which 
will  pay,  and  at  the  same  time  increase  instead  of  diminish 
their  estates." 

2d.  The  replies,  as  to  "other  industrial  establishments," 
show  by  their  diversit}^  that  the  question  was  variously  under- 
stood. The  information  desired  was,  as  to  new  industries, 
whether  artisan-skill  was  giving  shape  to  any  new  industrial 

Outside  of  the  lumber  mills  there  is  no  leading  manufac- 
turing  industry — none    which    gives    local    character.      The 


carriage,  canning,  clothing,  cordage,  tanning,  etc.,  are  indi- 
vidual, not  corporative  enterprises.  If  there  is  an  exception, 
it  is  stone  cutting. 

3d.  "  Grades  and  natives "  were  the  stereotyped  answers 
as  to  stock.  Of  thoroughbreds  the  show  is  meagre.  When 
size  was  the  desideratum  the  infusion  of  "pure  blood"  was 
from  the  Shorthorns.  The  present  tide  of  demand  is  toward 
Jersey  and  Ayrshire  grades.  Devons  introduced  a  few  years 
since,  are  now  represented  by  a  few  grades  in  Gouldsborough 
and  West  Ellsworth.  Unfortunately  this  race  of  cattle, 
remarkable  for  hardihood,  symmetry,  and  beauty,  were 
introduced  when  the  "  saw  dust  was  too  thick  to  see  its 

The  show  of  sheep  is  better  than  that  of  cattle.  The  New 
Leicester,  or  Woodstock  crosses,  predominate.  Of  pure 
breds,  Samuel  Wasson,  East  Surry,  and  the  Hill  Bros.,  East 
Sullivan,  and  Frank  Buck,  Orland,  have  Southdowns  from  the 
celebrated  Thome  stock.  New  York.  Brooksville  and  Brook- 
lin  have  choice  sheep. 

The  poultry, — more  "  breeds  "  were  reported,  than  Noah 
ever  dreamed  of. 

4th.  "Seedlings,"  say  the  responses,  are  "our  apples  for 
profit."  G.  V.  Mills,  and  11.  M.  Soule,  the  former,  having 
traveled  over  Western  Hancock  more  times  than  any  living 
man  of  his  years,  the  latter,  recognized  authority  in  Eastern 
Hancock,  express  ver\^  decided  preference  for  "  seedlings." 

Of  introduced  varieties  worthy  of  cultivation,  a  majority 
named  the  Baldwin,  grafted,  Northern  Spy,  Talman  Sweet- 
ing, Red  Astrachan,  Duchess  of  Oldenburg,  Rhode  Island 
Greening,  and  High  Top  Sweet.  The  next  in  order,  were 
Bell's  Early,  Porter,  Nonesuch  and  Noosehead.  The  failures 
named  are  reported  as  chargeable  "to  want  of  care,  varieties 
too  tender,  root-grafted,  not  true  to  name  and  hospitals" 

5th.  JNIost  of  the  replies  in  reference  to  minerals,  indicate 
that  the  term  was  taken  in  its  strictest  sense,  hence  most  of 
them  were  unsatisfactory  and  not  reliable. 


We  are  geologically  assured  that  there  are  metallic  ores 
where  their  presence  is  not  suspected,  and  in  towns  from 
which  the  report  saith,  "nothing  of  value." 

Appended  is  a  brief  descriptive  and  statistical  sketch  of 
each  town  in  the  county,  alphabetically  arranged. 

93.  Aurora  is  situated  on  the  "air  line"  road,  24  miles 
from  Ellsworth  and  25  miles  from  Bangor.  It  is  a  "  six  mile 
square."  Unlike  every  other  town  in  the  county,  it  has  no 
mills.  Its  soil  is  chiefly  gravelly  loam,  not  retentive  of 
moisture,  which  can  be  worked  earlier  in  the  spring  than 
any  other  town  on  the  Union  river.  The  prevailing  rock  is 
a  coarse  granite,  which  is  decomposed  by  infiltration,  and  is 
used  to  "  gravel  "  the  highways.  In  the  eastern  part  of  the 
town  is  one  of  those  alluvial  ridges,  a  marvel  to  the  geologist, 
known  as  "  horsebacks."  Nothing  similar  to  it  is  known  out 
of  New  England,  unless  it  be  known  in  Northern  Europe. 

The  orchards  tell  of  neglect.  That  which  shows  some 
care,  is  upon  the  farm  of  H.  M.  and  B.  Hall. 

On  reconnoitreing  this,  as  well  as  all  of  the  up-river  towns, 
following  the  highway,  one  finds  it  a  "hard  road  to  travel." 
The  roads  following  the  settlements  made  upon  the  summits 
of  the  hardwood  hills,  are  summity  in  the  extreme.  An 
exploration  may  discover  lime  and  graphite  of  economic 
value,  and  possibly  anthracite  coal. 

94.  Amherst. — This  town,  like  Aurora,  is  a  six  mile 
square.  It  is  22  miles  N.  N.  E.  of  Ellsworth.  It  is  highly 
favored  in  respect  to  water  power.  It  has  one  saw,  one  clap- 
board, one  grist,  two  shingle  mills,  and  a  large  tannery. 
Union  river  divides  the  town.  East  of  it  is  good  orchard 
land.  West  of  the  river,  excepting  the  interval,  the  soil  is 
granitic  and  the  surface  hilly. 

Near  the  "  corner  "  is  a  high  ledge,  some  acres  in  extent,  of 
a  peculiar  formation.  Rev.  Mr.  Loring  writes,  that  among 
its  minerals  are  "  sulphuret  of  iron,  crystals  of  quartz,  slate 
and  granite."  The  high  ledge  we  suppose  to  be  porphyry, 
containing  crystals  of  iron  pyrites,  with  compact  feldspar. 


In  the  improvement  of  its  stock,  Amherst  stands  unrivalled  ; 
and  this  is  due  mainly  to  the  energy  and  enterprise  of  A.  B. 
Buzzel.  Mr.  Buzzel  has  employed  a  mule  team  for  yeaj's. 
The  endurance  of  mules  is  wonderful ;  treated  to  cheap  fare, 
and  constant  labor,  yet  rarely  disa])led  or  chargeable  with 
lost  time.  It  would  be  of  mutual  advantage  to  Amherst  and 
Aurora,  to  put  up  a  cheese  factory  at  the  "corner."  Both 
towns  have  entered  the  cycle  of  years  when  farming  is  to  be 
a  paying  pursuit.  The  hides  used  in  the  sole-leather  tannery 
of  Buzzel  &  Sons,  are  principally  from  South  America  and 

95.  Bluehill  is  14  miles  west  from  Ellsworth,  and  is  36 
miles  from  Bangor.  From  this  quaint  old  town,  old  in  appear- 
ance, no  responses  to  certain  inquiries  were  made.  As  seen 
in  the  light  of  geological  discovery,  this  is  the  mettalliferous 
town  of  Hancock  county.  Bluehill  mountain,  when  unsealed 
by  scientific  excavation,  will  become  as  interesting  a  locality 
for  its  minerals  of  value  in  the  arts,  as  is  Mt.  Mica  in  Oxford 
for  its  rare  minerals  of  beauty.  Of  its  mineral  wealth  the 
grauite  only  has  assumed  commercial  value.  There  are  four 
quarries,  Hinckley's,  Chase's,  Collins',  and ,  and  a  ceme- 
tery monument  establishment,  by  B.  W.  Darling.  These 
atford  employment  for  oO  yoke  of  oxen,  and  300  wage- 
laborers.  A  few  years  since,  one  of  the  Osgood's  manufact- 
ured a  quantity  of  manganese  brick.  At  present  it  has  no 
great  value.  In  the  granite  quarried  here,  which  is  fine 
grained,  are  veins  of  copper,  iron,  fluor-spar,  lead,  and  phos- 
phate of  lime. 

As  a  summer  resort  for  that  class  of  tourists  in  search  of 
quiet,  good  air,  good  water,  and  fine  scenery,  it  is  second  to 
none  on  the  coast  of  Maine.  The  same  blight  has  struck  its 
agriculture,  which  has  come  to  all  of  our  towns  without  a 
home  market.  The  present  need  of  its  farmers,  is  a  cheese 
factory.  The  soil  is  good,  and  with  suitable  cultivation  can 
be  made  very  productive. 

90.  Brooklin  has  one  grist-mill,  four  porgie  fiictories,  and 
two  herring  packing-houses.     It  is  26  miles  from  Ellsworth,. 


and  50  miles  from  Bangor.  Naskeag  Point  is  an  historic, 
reminiscent  spot.  There  are  "signs"  that  it  was  inhabited  at 
a  time  and  by  a  people  of  which  history  saith  naught.  The 
soil,  says  Mr.  C.  W.  Herrick,  "is  strong  and  productive." 
The  hard  times  are  forcing  the  people  to  their  forms,  which 
have  been  sadly  neglected.  Orcharding,  for  which  the  soil  is 
well  adapted,  should  receive  a  deal  more  attention.  In  years 
gone  by,  when  we  went  there  wooing,  Capt.  Mark  Dodge  had 
a  thrifty  apple  orchard,  which  was  very  productive.  It  has  a 
good  soil  for  cranberries,  and  at  Centre  Harbor  one  of  the 
best  locations  for  a  cheese  fiictory.  Its  enterprising  people 
should  advertise  the  attractions  of  Naskeag  and  Flye's  Point, 
and  of  "Birch  Land,"  as  places  of  resort.  Of  its  mineral 
wealth,  its  "rough  and  rugged  rocks"  show  evidence  of  a 
paying  deposit  of  phosphate  of  lime. 

97.  Broohsville. — This  almost  island  town,  is  22  miles 
southwest  from  Ellsworth,  and  is  40  miles  from  Bangor. 
There  are  two  saw,  two  shingle,  two  grist,  a  stave  and  a  card- 
ing mill.  The  granite  quarry  at  Kench's  mountain  is  the  one 
first  wrought  in  the  county.  We  remember,  in  our  "pinafore'' 
days,  how  those  who  "cut  stone  for  a  living,"  were  assigned 
a  place  in  the  social  scale,  down  considerably  lower  than  the 
angels.  About  $26,000  worth  of  worked  stone  were  shipped 
from  this  quarry  last  year. 

At  Buck's  Harbor  (why  is  it  so  named  ?)  is  a  porgie  oil 
factory.  West  Brooksville  is  the  Coasterville  of  Western 
Hancock.  Nearly  every  man  sails,  helps  to  man,  or  is  part 
owner  of  a  "coaster,"  which  gives  a  peculiar  idiom  to  their 
language,  which  is  perfect  Greek  to  a  backwoodsman. 

Perkin's  mountain  is  hardly  second  to  Bluehill  mountain  as 
.a  locality  for  minerals.  It  is  said,  that  some  seventy  years 
ago  blacksmith  coal  was  taken  from  its  natural  bed  at  the 
foot  of  the  mountain,  and  tested  on  a  smith's  forge.  Alum 
and  copperas  are  abundant.  At  the  foot  of  the  mountain's 
western  declivity,  is  a  chalybeate  spring. 

Standing  upon  Wasson's  hill,  one  is  forcibly  impressed  that 
at  no  very  remote  geological  period,  the  waters  covered  the 


whole  West  Brooksville  flat,  and  that  Dodge's  cove  was  a 
large  bay.  Cape  Rosier  was  visited  by  Samuel  Champlain 
fifteen  years  before  the  landing  of  the  Pilgrims.  Wall^er's 
pond  is  a  water  picture  of  enchanting  loveliness,  while  the 
"devil's  track"  in  the  solid  granite  of  Kench's  mountain,  and 
the  clam  shells  on  Dodge's  and  Henry's  Points,  afford  themes 
for  the  curious.  Walker's  pond  is  one  of  the  best  alewive  fish 
pastures  in  the  county. 

98.  Bucksport. — It  is  an  established  saying,  that  "Bucks- 
port  is  18  miles  from  everywhere,"  which  saying  has  given 
birth  to  the  following  story  : 

Stranger.    How  far  is  it  from  Bucksport  to  Belfast? 

Citizen.    Eighteen  miles. 

Stranger.    How  far  is  it  to  Castine  ? 

Citizen,    Eighteen  miles. 

Stranger.    How  far  is  it  to  Bangor  ? 

Citizen.    Eighteen  miles. 

Stranger.    Well,  how  far  is  it  to  Ellsworth? 

Citizen.    Eighteen  miles. 

Stranger.  (With  emphasis)  Tell  me  how  far  it  is  from 
Bucksport  to  h-11  ? 

Citizen.    Not  acquainted  on  that  road,  don't  know. 

This  is  a  live  town.  It  has  a  railroad,  and  the  energy  and 
enterprise  of  Bucksport  built  it.  The  East  Maine  Conference 
Seminary,  an  institution  of  learning  having  a  high  standard, 
is  located  here.  Bucksport  and  Orland  are  the  only  trading 
posts  in  the  county  where  farm  produce  can  be  sold  for  cash. 
The  farmers  of  Bucksport,  with  their  lines  of  steam  commu- 
nication, should  invest  in  a  cheese  factory,  corn  canning,  and 
cucumber  pickling  establishments.  Can  their  farmers'  club 
do  a  better  work  than  to  take  hold  of  this  matter? 

99.  Cranberry  Isles. — This  town  is  situated  some  three 
miles  off  Mt.  Desert,  and  thirty-five  miles  from  Ellsworth. 
The  agricultural  features  of  those  islands  constitute  no  excep- 
tion to  those  of  most  of  the  outer  isles.  The  occupation  of 
the  inhabitants,  as  well  as  the  substantial  arrangements  of 
their  tables,  are  furnished  from  the  mute  being  world. 


In  response  to  our  circular,  Col.  Hadlock  says  :  "We  have 
thirty-eight  establishments  for  smoking  and  curing  fish  ;  some 
grade  Shorthorns  and  Ayrshire  cattle  ;  Oxford  and  Southdown 
sheep  ;  some  apple  trees,  mostly  the  Gravenstein  and  Duchess 
of  Oldenburg.  Some  of  our  soil  is  nice  for  potatoes.  Our  men 
folks  are  all,  or  nearly  so,  engaged  in  seafaring  pursuits. 

100.  Castine,  30  miles  from  Ellsworth  and  36  miles  from 
Bangor,  has  one  saw-mill,  one  grist-mill ;  and  a  brickyard  in 
which,  last  season,  were  made  three  millions  of  bricks — it  has 
clay,  water  and  sand  in  close  proximity.  Adjoining  tide  water, 
accessible  at  all  seasons,  are  two  canning  factories ;  these  es- 
tablishments, last  year,  put  up  50,000  cans  of  lobsters,  and 
15,000  cans  of  clams.  It  has  a  rope-walk,  and  a  cod  and 
mackerel  line  factory,  doing  a  business  of  $20,000  annually. 

There  is  an  orchard  in  town,  planted  in  1784,  which  bears 
good  fruit.  It  has  Init  very  little  waste  land.  It  has  an  ex- 
cellent wheat  soil,  and  is  equally  as  good  for  orcharding.  It 
has  one  of  the  few  winter  harbors,  with  water  bold  and  deep. 
As  a  summer  resort  it  is  unsurpassed,  and  to  be  known  is  to 
be  appreciated.  Dr.  Stevens  (whose  many  kind  and  gener- 
ous acts  to  the  sick  and  to  the  poor  will  never  be  forgotten), 
in  a  letter  to  me,  says  :  "No  minerals  of  value,  except  slate 
on  Holbrook's  island.  Soil  founded  on  argillaceous  slate,  a 
continuation  of  the  geological  formation  of  the  Upper  Penob- 
scot, terminating  on  the  east  at  Buck's  Harbor  in  Brooksville." 
George  H.  Emerson,  at  North  Castine,  although  "driven  to 
death"  with  business,  has  found  time  to  make  an  old,  worn 
out  field,  with  a  rocky,  sour  soil,  produce  two  crops  of  hay 
per  year ;  this  has  been  accomplished  by  underdraining  and 
top-dressing.  The  top-dressing  is  mainly  a  compost  of  rock- 
weed  and  earth,  decomposed,  and  then  spread ;  the  effect  is 

101.  Dedham. — The  "Lake  House,"  or  Stage  House,  is  15 
miles  from  Ellsworth,  and  11  miles  from  Bangor.  Only 
geographically,  is  Dedham  a  part  of  the  county.  Its  water- 
power  is  second  in  "head,"  or  supply,  to  but  few  in  the  State. 
Besides  a  full  quota  of  lumber  mills,  it  has  a  large  tannery, 


which  frrinds  some'800  cords  of  hemlock  bark,  and  turns  out 
yearly  about  100  tons  of  sole-leather. 

The  whole  town  is  an  aggregation  of  abrupt  metamorphic 
granite  hills.  Between  its  "  alpine  "  peaks  are  some  excellent 
farms,  and  our  best  orchards.  Fitz's  pond,  having  an  area 
of  three  square  miles,  has  been  stocked  with  black  bass. 

Nestled  down  amono-  the  hills  is  a  miniature  villaire,  known 
as  the  "  Colony,"  having  a  moral  and  an  intellectual  flora  and 
fauna  of  high  order,  with  a  deal  of  business  activity. 

Standing  in  front  of  "Mann's  tavern,"  and  facing  Hat  Case 
pond,  one  has  a  magnificent  view  of  a  crop  of  boulders  Avhich 
have  broken  from  the  parent  rock,  and  started  on  a  tour  of 

The  soil  of  Dedham  needs  a  great  deal  of  stirring  to  dis- 
solve its  insoluble  potash,  to  make  it  available  as  plant  food. 
Here  are  all  of  the  pre-requisites  for  a  corn  canning  establish- 
ment. It  would  take  but  a  few  years  for  su'ch  an  enterprise 
to  make  the  old  farms  shine. 

102.  Deer  Me. — This  maritime  and  island  municipality 
is  ,35  miles  S.  S.  W.  of  Ellsworth.  The  early  settlers  who 
obtained  a  title  to  their  lands  before  the  township  was  sur- 
veyed, were  termed  "proprietors,"  and  those  who  did  not 
secure  titles  until  after  the  survey,  were  known  as  "young 

Formerly,  Grand  Bank  and  Bay  fishing  was  the  chief  busi- 
ness. Since  the  repeal  of  the  "fishing  bounty,"  its  fleet  of 
"long  legged  bounty  catchers,"  have  gone  to  "Davy  Jones' 
locker,"  and  a  class  of  coasting  and  coast-wise  vessels  taken 
their  places. 

Nearl}'  one-half  of  the  township  is  salt  water  covered.  If 
the  people  are  not  anqyhihioits,  nearly'  every  citizen  can  "  hand, 
reef  and  steer  "  with  clever  expertuess. 

At  Green's  Landing  is  a  granite  quarry,  which  affords  a 
yearly  crop  of  4,000  tons  of  rough  and  cut  stone,  while  on 
the  "Reach"  shore  is  a  marble  quarry.  Roofing  slate  of 
good  quality  has  been  found  on  Little  Deer  Isle.     Here,  are 


conclusive  evidences  of  an  extinct  volcano,  which  in  some 
of  the  by-gone  years  hurled  aloft  a  shower  of  ashes  and  scald- 
ing lava.  Perhaps  nowhere  in  the  county  is  the  "  transition 
series  "  of  rocks  better  characterized  than  here. 

J.  H.  Parker  has  invented  a  machine  which,  by  a  new 
process,  tempers  and  straightens  steel,  which  is  commanding 
the  attention  of  saw  and  knife-blade  manufacturers. 

Limestone  is  undoubtedly  the  parent  rock  of  Deer  Isle ; 
but  having  been  crystallized,  together  with  the  mica  which  it 
contains,  renders  it  uufit  for  building  purposes,  as  quick-lime, 
and  gives  it  a  consistence  which  is  best  adapted  for  sculpture 
and  architecture. 

103.  Easthrook  is  eighteen  miles  N.  E.  of  Ellsworth.  It 
has  no  lawyer,  doctor,  pauper  or  grog  shop.  Its  mills  are 
grist,  lathe,  shingle,  clapboard,  one  each,  and  two  saw  mills. 
The  farmers  are  improving  their  stock  by  the  introduction  of 
Shorthorn,  and  Jersey  crosses.  The  sheep  are  mostly  Lei- 
cester and  Cotswold  grades.  There  are  some  liuely  grafted 
orchards.  Among  the  bearing  varieties  are  the  Golden 
Sweet,  Early  Harvest,  August  Sweet,  Sweet  Bough,  High 
Top  Sweet,  Red  Astrachan,  Porter,  Gravenstein,  Northern 
Spy,  Duchess  of  Oldenburg,  etc. 

Here,  as  in  all  of  the  up-river  towns,  lumbering  is  the  bane 
of  farming.  This  town  is  noted  for  its  peat  deposits — the 
coal  beds  of  some  future  geological  period. 

Mr.  H.  N.  Butler,  an  observing  farmer,  writes  me  that  "in 
plowing  some  of  the  highest  hills,  the  plow  frequently  turns 
up  a  kind  of  stone,  which  seems  to  be  composed  of  small 
marine  shells,  firmly  imbedded  in  sand,  or  in  a  kind  of  clay 
state."  This  is  the  only  instance  in  which  fossiliferous  rocks 
have  been  reported.  These  shells  must  have  existed  when 
the  sedimentary  rocks  were  in  process  of  formation  under 
water ;  if  the  shells  are  marine,  it  was  the  waters  of  the  sea ; 
if  fresh  water,  a  lake  or  river;  if  intermediate,  an  estuary. 
This  is  as  conclusive  as  if  we  had  lived  in  that  ancient  time, 
and  had  witnessed  this  entombment  in  the  sand. 


104.  Eden^  a  part  of  the  island  of  Mt.  Desert,  is  11  miles 
S.  S.  E.  of  Ellsworth.  Here,  one  must  look  through  other 
than  farmers'  eyes,  to  view  the  wonders  of  the  "puzzle  box" 
to  the  geologist,  the  surfjice  twisted  and  contorted  as  if  it  had 
been  "crumpled  up"  by  some  mighty  hand.  It  is  a  land  of 
curiosities,  where  naught  but  a  "force  Divine "  could  have 
created  its  wild  beauty,  and  sublime  natural  scenery.  The 
"Goi-ge,"  the  "Ovens,"  "Schooner  Head,"  "Pulpit  Rock,"  the 
"Caverns,"  are  some  of  its  "medals  of  creation." 

The  chief  employment  of  the  people  of  Eden  now  is,  and  is 
to  be,  to  cater  to  the  wants  of  summer  tourists.  Each  season 
adds  to  the  number  of  its  visitors,  especially  of  that  class 
desiring  to  get  out  of  the  suffocating  cities  into  fresh  mental 
and  moral  air.  It  is  only  a  question  of  time  when  Eden  w  ill 
have  a  place  in  the  front  rank  of  fashionable  watering  places, 
and  will  have  quadrupled  her  per  capita  w^ealth.' 

105.  Ellsv:orth. — This  is  the  "lone"  city  of  the  county; 
but  while  the  city  itself  is  small,  Ellsworth,  in  the  aggregate, 
is  the  territorial  London  of  "  Down  East."  The  business 
portion  of  the  town  is  situated  on  Union  river,  around  the 
Falls.  The  Falls  which  cover  a  distance  of  two  miles,  or 
from  the  Bridge  to  the  Falls  Village,  have  wnthin  that  two 
miles  a  total  fall  of  85  feet,  or  100  feet  in  2^  miles.  The 
"holding  capacity  "  of  the  lake  and  pond  feeders,  is  estimated 
at  5,500,000,000  cubic  feet,  and  the  cubic  feet  of  water  an- 
nually delivered  at,  and  discharged  over  the  falls,  at  17,500,- 
000,000.  The  height  of  the  head  of  the  river,  above  its 
mouth,  is  a  little  more  than  205  feet.  Above  Falls  Village 
the  mean  rate  of  discount  is  so  trifling  that  the  term  "slack" 
water  is  appropriately  applied. 

For  the  manufacturing  establishments  reported,  I  am  in- 
debted to  L.  D.  Jordan.  There  are  eleven  saw  mills  with 
nine  "gangs";  nine  single  saw,  eight  shingle,  five  box,  three 
clapboard,  and  one  grist  mill  propelled  by  water.  Number 
of  "  up  and  down  "  saws  117.  Driven  by  steam,  three  box 
mills,  one  flour,  seven  planers,  one  stave,  one  pail,  three 
moulding,  one  barrel,  one  grist,  one  kit,  two  door,  sash  and 


blind,  and  one  pump  and  block.  The  other  establishments 
are  four  carriage  shops,  four  harness,  two  sail-lofts,  one  iron 
foundry,  two  tin  plate  and  two  cabinet  makers.  When  the 
raw  material  for  wooden  ware  is  exhausted,  and  the  saw(Uist 
and  "wrap-stuff"  have  disappeared,  a  narrow  guage  railroad 
will  be  added  to  its  enterprises  ;  till  then 

'•  We  have  but  faith." 

Ellsworth  has  a  large  territorial  area,  which  is  of  but  little 
agricultural  value  other  than  as  sheep-ranges,  and  of  little 
value  for  this  purpose,  while  the  dogs  are  uppermost  in  the 
strife.  Travelers  following  the  stage  road  see  the  fa-.e  of 
the  country  in  its  worst  aspect,  as  the  main  thoroughfare  of 
travel  passes  through  a  section  of  metamorphic  ledges,  "  kept 
steady "  by  counterpoising  erratic  blocks,  which  have  been 
brought  hither  by  some  terrific  earth  storm.  We  know  of 
no  other  spot  in  the  county  with  boulders  of  grandeur  equal 
to  those  deposited  l^etweeli  Falls  Village  and  the  "  Cr-iigs." 
Each  boulder  declares  it  nationality,  each  a  fragment  of  a 
word  in  a  chapter  of  the  world's  history. 

The  American,  the  only  newspaper  enterprise  in  the 
county,  was  started  in  1853,  and  from  a  small  beginning, 
has  grown  into  solid  favor.  Whether  on  or  off  the  "  battle 
ground  of  sparring  politicians,"  may  it  ever  keep  active  its 
scissors,  brain  and  pen. 

In  the  Tyler  or  McGown  district  is  a  flourishing  Farmers' 
Club.  Mr.  Tyler  has  patented  a  process  to  preserve  eggs, 
out  of  which  he  expects  to  make  his  "pile."  Here  is  a  piece 
of  road,  where  one  having  a  fancy  for  mud  can  indulge  knee- 
deep,  when  the  frost  is  coming  out. 

lOG.  Franklin  is  11  miles  east  of  Ellsworth,  and  17  miles 
west  of  Cherryfield.  It  has  nine  lumber  mills  and  two  grist 
mills,  a  tannery  and  three  granite  quarries.  W.  W.  Brag- 
don  says,  "  not  one  in  town  is  living  exclusively  by  farmjng." 
This  is  another  of  our  sheep-range  towns.  The  soil  is  coarse 
and  rocky,  but  under  good  cultivation  is  very  productive. 
The  true  policy  for  her  farmers  is  to  plow  less  and  graze 


more.  Cranberry  culture  has  received  some  attention,  and 
thus  far  is  successful. 

The  material  wealth  of  this  town  is  in  its  water  power  and 
in  its  lii-anite.  The  granite  is  porphyritic,  but  splits  well, 
and  is  handsome  when  hammered. 

It  is  among  the  possiljilities  that  George's  pond  may  break 
its  barrier,  and  in  utter  disregard  of  all  preference  for  "  sprink- 
ling," immerse  all  in  its  pathw'ay  to  the  bay. 

Fi-anklin  has  shipped  more  spars,  railroad  ties,  and  ship 
timber,  than  any  other  town  of  equal  size  in  this  or  in  Wash- 
ington county.  Nearly  one-third  of  the  hay  is  cut  on  salt 
marshes  ;  the  rafting  or  l)ooming  it  in,  after  it  is  mown,  that 
is,  the  raking  it  by  water  as  the  tide  tlows,  is  fun  for  the  boys, 
but  "death"  to  rheumatic  old  men. 

107.  Goiildshorough  is  21  miles  S.  E.  of  Ellsworth,  on  the 
shore  stage  line.  It  is  the  southeastern  town  of  the  county. 
It  has  five  saw,  and  two  grist-mills,  and  one  lobster  canning 
faetor}',  (one  has  been  burned  recently).  The  mills  of  that 
mechanical  genius,  W.  L.  Guptill,  (driven  by  a  "pint  of  water") 
show  what  an  almost  incredible  amount  of  shipping  material 
can  be  made  out  of  a  given  measure  of  raw  material. 

Here  we  tind  an  infusion  of  Devon  and  Merino  blood.  It 
must  have  been  a  depraved  appetite  which  called  for  Merino 
mutton  in  that  section. 

The  soil  is  a  clay  loam,  with  blutfs  of  bold  granite,  with 
veins  of  galena,  zinc  and  copper.  Here,  amid  the  shell  heaps 
covering  acres,  and  which  contain  antiquities,  such  as  arrow- 
heads, stone  hatchets  and  chisels,  pieces  of  rude  pottery, 
bones  of  the  moose,  the  deer,  the  bear,  and  those  of  birds,  is 
a  rich  tield  for  the  antiquarian.  Among  the  bones  of  birds 
Avhieh  have  been  unearthed,  are  those  of  the  Great  Auk,  now 
extinct,  which  tends  to  show  that  an  arctic  climate  once  pre- 
vailed here.  Icelandic  chronicles  demonstrate  that  the  Skrael- 
lings,  a  people  of  Esquimaux  habits,  were  at  an  early  period 
scattered  along  these  shores.     But  who 

"Slowly  sliapcd  with  axe  of  stone, 
The  arrow-head  from  Hint  and  bone," 

must  be  left  to  the  imagination. 


108.  Hancock. — This  T  shaped  town  adjoins  Ellsworth  on 
the  east.  This  town  has  a  larger  proportion  of  arable  land 
than  any  other  town  in  the  county.  It  boasts  of  but  one 
lumber  mill.  The  farm  stock  (horned  cattle)  are  Jersey, 
Shorthorn  and  Ayrshire  crosses.  The  fields,  buildings  and 
surroundings,  tell  of  material  prosperity.  A  very  noticeable 
feature  is  the  absence  of  that  clutteration  which  disfigures  so 
many  farm  door  yards. 

Within  a  decade  the  people  upon  the  Neck  have  engaged 
in  Grand  Bank  fishing,  and  notwithstanding  some  heavy 
losses,  this  enterprise  is  paying.  In  no  other  town  in  the 
county  (Orland  not  excepted),  does  such  a  business  rivalry 
exist  as  here,  and  out  of  which  so  much  clean  money  has  been 

To  the  seekers  of  pleasure,  or  to  those  who  would  spend  a 
season  imbibing  the  exhilarating  air  of  our  ocean,  we  know 
of  no  more  inviting  locality  than  Crabtree's  Neck. 

Geologically  speaking  this  is  a  much  younger  town  than 
Sullivan.  It  w^as  evidently  formed  by  the  early  drainage  of 
the  country  during  the  last  great  geological  changes  of  this 
region.  The  course  of  the  glacier  markings  here  range  from 
N.  5°  W.  to  N.  15°  E.  The  "  level "  of  North  Hancock  sug- 
gests the  probability  of  an  ancient  lake  bottom. 

109.  Lamoine,  a  sea-washed  town,  9  miles  S.  E.  of  Ells- 
worth, has  nothing  Frenchy  left  except  its  name.  Its  appoint- 
ments all  indicate  a  people  "  well  to  live."  The  soil  is  good, 
and  with  its  facilities  for  obtaining  marine  manure,  can  easil}'' 
and  cheaply  be  made  to  produce  big  crops  of  hay ;  but,  says 
a  citizen,  "the  people  fish  a  little,  and  coast  a  little,  and  put 
the  smallest  effort  and  outlay  to  farming." 

The  chief  industry  is  fishing.  Hon.  Warren  King  gives  the 
yearly  catch  of  Grand  Bank  fish  at  8,000  quintals,  and  of 
Maffdalen  herring  at  100,000  boxes,  with  a  combined  market 
value  of  $55,000.  April,  1876,  Lamoine  had  several  vessels 
on  their  Avay  to  "the  Magdalens."  As  a  natural  sequence, 
where  fishing  is  foremost,  cattle  husbandry  is  hindermost. 


Here,  we  notice  a  new  style  of  "biddy,"  Sicillian  hens. 
What  its  cackling  chiim  may  be,  other  than  to  "pick and  eat," 
we  know  not. 

Bhnit's  pond  is  one  of  nature's  curious  things.  Its  altitude 
above  sea  level  is  300  feet.  The  colossal  embankment  which 
impounds  its  thirty  acres  of  area,  is  so  artistically  constructed 
that  one  instinctively  feels  that  the  "mound-builders"  have 
been  here.  Its  peculiar  location  is  a  marvel,  being  upon  a 
height  of  "loess  or  bluff  formation,"  which  extends  in  a  north- 
erly  dire^ition  across  the  county. 

Along  the  coast  line  extensive  deposits  of  clam  shells  occur, 
in  which  human  bones  have  been  found.  What  bivalve  gor- 
mandizers "ye"  settlers  of  the  olden  times  were.  In  this  bed 
of  clam  shells,  a  few  years  since,  Capt.  A.  G.  Berry  found  a 
brass  kettle,  an  axe,  and  a  stone  tile.  Capt.  Berry,  who  is 
quite  an  antiquarian,  has  in  his  possession  the  account  book 
of  the  first  settler,  also  that  of  Dr.  Payson,  and  some  of  the 
old  French  deeds  as  executed  by  Mrs.  Gregorie.  From  one 
dated  in  1788,  we  extract  the  following,  preserving  its  phra- 
seology and  spelling : 

'•'•We  Bnitlioloniy  cle  Gegorio,  and  Maria  T.  his  wife,  in  coiisideratioii  of 
five  Spanish  Milled  dollars,  for  divers  good  causes,  us  hereunto  moving, 
do  sell  unto  Martin  Gillpatrick  *  *  *  *  a  certain  tract  of  land,  with  all 
the  Estate,  Eight,  Title,  Interest,  Use,  Property,  Claim  and  Demand." 
*****  Signed  by 

Bartholomy  De  Gregoire 

Maria  Therese  de  Gregorie  nee  de  law  the  cadillack. 

Acknowledged  by         Nicholas  Holt.  Justus  peas. 

We  are  told  by  Mr.  Hiram  Bartlett,  that  rock  weed  as  a 
top-dressing  for  grass  should  be  spread  as  fast  as  it  is  pulled. 
His  fields  second  his  statements.  His  theory  is,  that  as  soon 
as  rock  weed  in  heaps  begins  to  heat  and  decompose,  ammonia 
is  formed,  and  thrown  ofi'  and  lost.  Will  sea-shore  farmers 

110.  Mariaville  is  one  of  the  "up-river"  towns,  as  all  the 
country  on  Union  river  above  Ellsworth  is  called.  The  out- 
liues  of  this  town  are  neither  straight,  zigzag,  nor  crooked. 
Its  shape  is  as  inconvenient  as  an  enemy  could  wish.  The 
occupied  portion  is  like  an  Indian  mile,  "all  long  and  no  wide." 


Upon  the  outlet  of  Flood's  pond  are  several  mills  and  a  large 
tannery.  Here  are  some  good  farms,  with  tastily  arranged 
farm  buildings,  as  one  would  expect  on  the  Kennebec.  In  no 
part  of  "ancient  Acadia,"  can  better  orchard  soil  be  found. 
The  most  serious  drawback  is  the  cost  of  the  roads  and 
bridges.  Every  highway  surveyor  must  be  a  bridge  builder. 
Why  not  ask  aid  of  the  County  Commissioners  ? 

111.  llount  Desert. — This  "  Coaste  Hille  "  town,  Cham- 
plain's  ''L'isle  des  Monts-deserts  "  has  six  mills,  one  grist  and 
five  lumber,  two  of  which  are  run  by  steam.  The  annual  ice 
crop  is  estimated  at  1,200  tons.  A  granite  quarry  employs 
some  forty  men.  The  shipment  of  cut  stone,  E.  B.  Babson 
estimates  at  3,500  tons.  Stock  mostly  native.  None  live 
exclusively  by  farming.  Dr.  Grindle  says,  "not  a  level  field 
in  town."     Hay  usuall}'^  sells  at  a  higher  rate  than  elsewhere. 

Says  Dr.  Grindle  :  "  there  are  a  few  facts  relative  to  Mt. 
Desert  which  are  equally  true  of  many  parts  of  Maine.  The 
climate  is  not  suited  to  hic^h  farmino-.  This  is  not  so  much 
owing  to  our  high  latitude  as  to  our  nearness  to  the  Atlantic. 
Our  mean  annual  temperature  is  no  lower  than  other  locali- 
ties in  the  same  latitude,  which  are  good  farming  localities  ; 
but  the  difference  is  this,  the  change  from  winter  to  summer 
is  very  sudden,  and  the  period  of  uncertain  weather  is  very 
short,  while  our  nearness  to  the  ocean  makes  the  change 
from  winter  to  summer  yqvj  gradual,  and  gives  us  months  of 
weather  which  are  extremely  uncertain.  This  period  of  ir- 
regular alternating  of  summer  and  winter  days  is  the  ruin 
of  agricultural  prosperity." 

The  future  of  this  town,  as  of  the  county,  is  in  its  water 
power,  its  stone,  and  its  ice.  The  town  of  Mt.  Desert,  as 
well  as  the  whole  island,  exhibits  the  boulder  phenomena  in  a 
wonderful  degi'ee.  Here  are  "lost  rocks"  of  red  and  blue 
granite,  trap,  gneiss,  mica  schist,  clay  slate,  and  fossiliferous 
sandstones.  The  greater  portion  of  the  so  called  granite,  is 
protogine  (talcose  granite).  There  is  considerable  sienite 
(hornblende  substituted  for  mica) ,  in  which  are  veins  of  mag- 
netic iron,  arsenical  iron  and  pyrites. 


Green  mountain,  1,533  feet  high,  is  the  highest  peak  on 
the  Atlantic  coast  from  Lubec  to  the  Eio  Grande  ;  nor  from 
any  eminence  on  the  coast  can  so  fine  a  view  be  obtained. 

112.  Orlando  at  the  head  of  Eastern  river,  is  15  miles 
west  of  Ellsworth.  It  has  one  grist-mill,  six  saw-mills,  and  a 
woolen  factory.  The  factory,  when  in  full  operation,  turned 
out  in  one  season  30,000  yards  of  repellants,  at  six  cents  a 
yard  less  than  any  similar  establishment  in  the  State. 

The  surface  confirmation  of  Orland  is  peculiar.  The  hills 
are  conical  and  precipitous,  while  the  valleys  approach  the 
gorge  form.  Standing  upon  a  picturesque  knoll  of  "  modified 
drift,"  on  the  farm  of  Frank  Buck,  one  has  a  grand  view  of 
the  erratic  results  of  one  of  Nature's  tantrums.  Before  him  are 
the  evidences  that  in  time  past,  the  pent  up  waters  which  sub- 
merged the  vast  plane  above  the  iactory,  burst  their  bounds, 
and  with  fearful  force  cut  a  new  outlet  to  the  sea,  formed 
Eastern  river,  and  made  an  island  of  Verona. 

A  hasty  reconnoisauce  show  most  of  the  farms  under  good 
cultivation.  The  farm  Iniildings  and  the  fences  don't  wear 
that  "don't-care-me-look,"  which  is  the  harbinger  of  an  arid 

Of  the  300  voters,  200  arc  formers.  Upon  most  of  the 
farms  appear  a  mowing  machine.  Frank  Buck  has  some  fine 
Herd  Book  Ayrshire  and  Jersey  animals.  Few  agricultural 
centres  in  Maine  show  iireatcr  activity  than  Orland  villag^e. 

In  the  eastern  part  of  the  town  arc  masses  of  potash  feld- 
spar granite  rocks,  which  are  crumbling  into  rock  meal ;  in 
the  "meal"  gold  is  found.  These  boulders  are  of  a  porphyric 
variety,  with  black  mica.  In  most  of  the  streams  occur 
bright  yelloAv  scales  of  mica,  which  have  given  birth  to  many 
"gold"  reports. 

On  the  northeast  side  of  Great  Mountain  is  a  cave  which 
has  been  explored  for  sixty  feet.  It  has  several  rooms  with 
walls  and  ceiling  of  basaltic  finish. 

We  suggest  that  the  mountains  of  Orland  belong  to  the 
Mountain  Limestone  period,  that  age  of  the  growing  continent 
when  the  crinoed  "beads  of  St.  Cuthbert"  were  made. 


113.  Otis  is  "up  river,"  15  miles  north  of  Ellsworth. 
Soil,  as  a  whole,  is  productive,  when  cultivated.  At  present 
the  good  citizens  see  a  "  bow  of  promise "  in  lumbering, 
instead  of  in  farming. 

Entering  the  town  from  Mariaville,  one  cannot  fail  to 
notice  a  peculiarity  in  the  underlaying  rock.  The  strata  are 
placed  perpendicularly,  and  are  composed  of  alternate  layers, 
a  few  inches  thick,  of  a  hard  slate  (talcose)  and  a  kind  of 
sandstone.  The  prevailing  rock  is  mica  schist  interstratified 
with  impure  limestone. 

Beech  Hill  settlement,  heretofore  known  as  "New  Tren- 
ton," can  boast  of  more  cousins  than  all  the  rest  of  the 
"  realm." 

In  the  northerly  part  of  the  town,  about  the  outlets  of 
Flood's  and  Spring  ponds,  the  surface  is  level,  which  requires 
muscle  and  will  only  to  make  the  soil  teem  with  wealth. 

Mr.  Charles  Otis  says,  "there  is  a  cave  on  Oak  Hill,  on  the 
west  side  of  Beech  Hill  pond,  which  is  twelve  feet  under 
ground,  with  rooms  seven  feet  by  ten  feet.  Ice  and  snow 
having  been  found  in  it  on  the  4th  of  July,  gave  it  the  name 
of  the  '  Cold  Cellar.'  The  western  half  of  Otis  is  unsettled, 
and  many  good  acres  are  in  want  of  good  hands." 

114.  Penobscot. — We  are  indebted  to  Jos.  M.  Hutchins 
foi'  an  elaborate  paper,  from  which  we  quote  the  following 
facts : 

"Lumber  mills,  live;  grist  mills,  two;  brickyards,  four ; 
mitten  manufactory,  one ;  this  employs  300  knitters,  and 
yields  a  yearly  product  of  $12,000. 

With  the  engrafting  of  new  industries,  this  old  town  has 
renewed  its  age.  The  larger  number  of  the  names  of  the 
citizens  suggest  a  Scottish  ancestry,  while  a  very  large  num- 
ber of  men  have  a  wide  celebrity  for  their  physical  strength. 

The  Fall  Dandelion,  Leontodon  autumnate,  which  now  has 
dandelioned  the  whole  county,  we  lirst  saw,  in  1837,  at  the 
Hardscrabble  end  of  the  'Doshen  Shore.' 

We  find  some  excellent  stock  here  \  particularly  noticeable 
are  some  high  grade  Shorthorns  of  Mr.  Norton's.     For  some 


unexplfiiiied  cause,  the  apple  trees  are  many  of  them  non- 
bearers  and  short-lived.  Hen-hawks  are  unwelcome  summer 

Mr.  Hutchins  adds,  "I  have  a  ledge  on  my  farm,  which 
lias  excited  the  curiosity  of  speculatists,  and  given  rise  to  a 
great  diversity  of  opinions  among  persons  not  w^ell  versed  in 
mineralogy.  It  exists  in  layers,  is  of  a  slate  color ;  when 
mixed  Avith  linseed  oil  or  white  lead,  makes  a  durable  paint 
which  defies  the  action  of  the  elements.  It  has  been  used  in 
patent  rooting  in  lieu  of  slate,  and  w^e  are  told  it  works  well 
as  cement.  It  seems  to  combine  to  some  extent  the  properties 
of  lend  and  slate,  and,  in  fact,  appears  to  be  one  of  Nature's 
anomalies,  w^iich,  on  account  of  its  singular  combination  of 
properties,  places  it  in  neutral  position  among  her  valuable 

115.  Sedgivick,  24  miles  westerly  of  Ellsworth,  is  another 
of  our  misshapen  towns.  The  "  pompet "  which  darkens  its 
agriculture,  is  its  maritime  facility.  A  large  proportion  of 
this  town  is  non-arable,  or  grazing  land,  the  bushy  acres  of 
which  should  be  made  to  turn  out  annually  tons  of  superior 
mutton.  From  Sargentsville  to  Sedgwick,  following  the  shore 
of  Eggmoggin  Reach,  the  soil  is  easy  of  cultivation  and  is 
quite  productive.  Like  most  of  our  sea-boarcl  towns,  the 
sea  and  not  the  soil,  furnishes  the  bread.  The  industrial 
establishments  are  mainly  those  which  are  related  to  the  fish- 
ing industry. 

At  Sargentsville,  Hon.  AV.  G.  Sargent  &  Son  are  doing  a 
flourishing  business.  At  the  village  are  some  very  pretty 
red  Durhams,  introduced  by  Joshua  Watson.  When  the 
shore-line  becomes  a  summer  resort,  as  it  must,  the  gj-owing 
of  "garden  truck"  will  become  a  paying  pursuit.  The  cen- 
tral position  of  Sedgwick  is  of  but  little  agricultural  value. 
A  few  squatters  have  squat  in,  and  there  they  stay  to  see 
others  live. 

A  cheese  factory,  and  cucumber  growing  for  pickles,  are 
the  more  pressing  needs  of  Sedgwick's  farmers.     This  town 


has  taken  heed  to  its  future,  in  "  building  upon  a  rock,"  being 
underlaid  with  granite. 

116.  8urry,  on  the  west  bank  of  Union  River  bay,  has  a 
large  comparative  area  of  good  tillage  land.  The  most  of  the 
surface  soil  is  so  intermixed  with  comminuted  quartz,  or 
silicious  sand,  that  cranberries  grow  in  the  grass  fields.  The 
cultivation  of  this  staple  crop  is  attracting  more  and  more 
attention.  The  town,  in  1872,  constructed  fish  ways  to  Pat- 
ten's ponds,  and  this  season  will  stock  the  ponds  with  ale  wives 
and  salmon.  Here,  are  two  flourishing  Farmer's  Clubs. 
The  hard  times  have  driven  the  farmers  to  the  muscle-bed. 
Bless  the  hard  times  for  that. 

A  recent  discovery  of  quartz,  which  if  in  quantit}'^,  and  as 
pure  as  the  specimens,  is  valuable  for  glass-making  or  porce- 
lain ware. 

On  the  "  Toddy "  pond  road  occurs  what  Prof.  Gunning 
calls  a  "strange  behavior  of  granite,"  similar  to,  but  not  on 
so  grand  a  scale  as  in  Orland. 

"Over  miles  of  surface  there  lay,  a  few  years  ago,  a  bleak 
profusion  of  granite  boulders.  To-day  these  boulders  are  seen 
in  every  stage  of  ruin.  Here  and  there  is  a  mound  of  gravel, 
all  that  remains  of  a  once  great  boulder,  while  here  and  there 
is  a  boulder  just  smitten  with  decay.  We  have  found  the 
decay  not  a  chemical  rot,  but  a  mechanical  disintegration. 
The  granite  was  badly  made,  and  the  fate  which  awaits  all 
dishonesty  has  at  last  overtaken  these  boulders. 

But  the  mystery  is  that  these  rocks  should  have  stood  there 
so  many  thousand  years — perhaps  200,000  (since  the  Glacial 
Period) — all  firm  and  sound,  and  then,  all  at  once,  about 
twenty  years  ago,  taken  it  into  their  old  flinty  heads  to 
tumble  down  into  gravel !" 

If  the  tourist  will  drive  on  a  few  miles  beyond  this  "  world 
rot,"  into   the    Dedham   stage   road,   he    can    see    the    most 
wonderful  display  of  boulders  on  the  continent.     Immense 
boulders  lie  in  wild  confusion,  boulder  on  boulder, 
"  The  fragments  of  an  earlier  world." 




117.  Sullivan,  established  on  a  rock,  is  13  miles  S.  E. 
of  Ellsworth.  It  has  long  been  noted  for  its  immense  deposits 
of  granite  or  sienite,  and  for  the  first-class  coasters  con- 
structed in  its  ship  yards,  as  well. 

The  chief  industry  of  the  town  centres  in  its  inexhaustible 
beds  of  granite,  and  such  is  the  grooving  demand  for  "build- 
ing stone,"  that  long  before  the  next  centennial,  quarrying 
will  subordinate  to  itself  all  the  other  industries  of  the  place, 
and  will  become  the  sole  article  of  export.  The  granite, 
w^hich  contains  veins  of  beautiful  feldspar  green,  is  of  superior 
quality,  splits  well,  may  be  wrought  into  almost  any  shape, 
and  is  suitable  for  any  kind  of  building. 

At  Waukeag  Neck,  and  at  East  Sullivan,  are  good  farming 
lands,  and  some  good  farms,  which,  with  the  promise  of  a 
home  market  at  the  quarries,  can  be  worked  with  profit. 
Every  man  who  is  not  a  stone-cutter  should  be  a  keeper  of 
sheep,  for  the  finger  of  Nature  has  here  written  "graze,  and 
not  plow." 

Bridging  the  "Falls,"  a  future,  if  not  a  present  need,  is  not 
a  matter  of  doubt,  but  of  time  only ;  for  the  history  of  pro- 
gress shows  that  individual  and  municipal  rights  always  suc- 
cumb to  public  demands. 

118.  Trenton. — This  peninsula  abuts  Ellsworth  on  the 
south ;  extends  to  and  includes  Mt.  Desert  Narrows.  Farm- 
ing here,  as  in  the  other  of  our  sea-washed  towns,  is  a  second- 
ary vocation.  The  soil,  and  the  "lay  of  the  land"  on  the 
western  slope  of  Jordan's  river,  closely  resembles  that  of  the 
upper  St.  John's.  Some  of  the  best  farms  are  without  road- 
side fences. 

Monroe  Young,  the  Mayor  of  Ellsworth,  has  a  paradise 
of  a  farm.  It  will  well  repay  one  to  visit  this  farm,  just 
before  haying,  to  see  what  muscle-bed  will  do  for  an  old, 
worn-out  grass  field,  and  how  money  can  be  made  by  farming. 
But  few  farms  can  be  found  in  the  county,  or  in  the  State, 
with  fewer  dead  weights  to  endanger  the  "just  poise  of  the 
beam."     H.  S.  Trevett,  a  reading  farmer,  and  who  does  not 


go  in  for  paper  covers,  says,  "  we  have  several  who  live  ex- 
clusively by  farming." 

At  Oak  Point  are  evidences  of  a  settlement  anterior  to  his- 
toric data.  Trenton  occupies  a  central  position,  very  nearly 
within  the  great  mica  schist  basin  of  the  county,  and  litliolog- 
ically  considered,  is  not  within  the  true  coal  or  lime  forma- 
tion.    This  basin  is  supposed  to  be  of  Cambrian  age. 

A  well  located  cheese  factory  would  soon  double  the  value 
of  the  grass  and  grazing  lands  of  Trenton,  while  the  growing 
of  potatoes  for  shipment  can  be  made  a  good  paying  business. 

119.  Tremont. — This  "  tri-mountain  portion  of  the  Desert 
Isles,"  is  situated  25  miles  south  of  Ellsworth.  Like  most  of 
our  maritime  towns,  its  "staff  of  life"  is  found  in  the  salt 
sea.  In  the  early  settlement  of  the  island,  Bass  Harbor  was  a 
favorite  resort  of  bass.  Dog  mountain  has  been  carefully 
prospected,  with  spade  and  pick,  for  money  hid  by  Captain 
Kidd.  The  eastern  side  of  the  "Lovers'  Scalp"  mountain 
has  an  almost  perpendicular  descent  of  900  feet  to  the  sur- 
face of  Somes'  Sound.  The  sea-wall  at  South  West  Harbor, 
which,  after  an  off  the  coast  storm  is  often  15  feet  high,  is  one 
of  the  most  interesting  of  those  peculiar  embankments  found 
along  the  coast. 

Among  the  not  to  be  coveted  municipal  appendages  of 
Tremont,  is  its  guild  of  indigents,  upon  Lunt's  Long  Island, 
a  fruitful  field  whereupon  the  overseers  of  the  poor  can 
"shine  .uood  deeds  in  a  naughty  world." 

120.  Verona. — This  "  mountain  in  the  sea,"  is  situated  just 
below  Bucksport,  and  between  Penobscot  and  Eastern  rivers. 
The  soil  is  hard  and  rocky.  The  chief  industry  is  weir-fishing, 
and  duiing  the  "  run  of  the  salmon  "  there  is  but  little  of  sleep 
or  slumber  for  the  nocturnal  weir-men. 

Says  Hon.  A.  H.  Whitmore,  "we  have  no  thoroughbred 
stock.  For  sheep,  our  island  affords  an  excellent  range. 
Within  a  few  years  a  number  of  apple  orchards  have  been 
planted,  mostly  New  York  trees,  and  are  doing  well.  The 
varieties,  mainly,  are  Eed  Astrachan,  Duchess  of  Oldenburg, 
and  Talman's  Sweet." 


This,  the  earliest  settled  locality  on  the  Penobscot  above 
Belfast,  and  known  for  more  than  fifty  years  as  Whitmore's, 
or  as  Orphan  Island,  has  grown  and  shipped  more  cords  of 
hard  wood  per  acre  than  any  other  town  in  the  county. 

121.  Waltham,  on  the  eastern  bank  of  Union  river,  is  11 
miles  fi'om  Ellsworth.  It  has  a  natural  apple  orchard  soil, 
and  a  soil  peculiarly  fitted  for  potatoes.  For  orcharding,  no 
locality  in  the  county  excels  that  of  "  Timber  Brook  Ridge." 

Here  is  another  of  those  interesting  caves.  Three  of  its 
rooms  have  been  explored,  the  larger  of  the  three  being  15 
feet  by  20.  "Cave  Hill"  is  without  doubt  out  of  the  same 
family  as  the  mountains  in  Orlaud,  and  of  the  same  geological 
age  and  formation. 

The  northeastern  portion  of  Waltham  is  a  confusion  of 
gigantic  boulders.  Marine  shells,  and  petrified  forms  of 
plants  and  animals,  are  frequently  turned  up  by  the  plow. 
Not  many  centuries  gone  by,  the  pretty  village  flat,  at  Hast- 
ing's  bridge,  was  a  lake  bottom.  The  evidences  are  legibly 
written  there. 

Webb's  brook  is  one  of  the  very  best  of  "up  river"  cheese 
factory  sites,  which  the  farmers  of  that  vicinity  cannot  afford 
to  let  longer  go  unimproved. 

122.  The  "Separation." — On  the  fourth  Monday  of  July, 
1819,  the  inhabitants  of  the  District  of  Maine  voted  to  be- 
come an  independent  State.  It  was  enacted  b}'^  Massachu- 
setts, that  not  less  than  a  majority  vote  of  1,500  would  be 
deemed  as  an  expression  in  favor  of  separation. 

The  whole  number  of  votes  was 4,709 

For  separation 3,315 

Against  separation 1,394 

The  whole  number  of  votes  in  Hancock  County  was  1,518. 

For  separation 820 

Against  separation 7G1 

From  Sullivan  and  Mariaville  plantation  no  returns  were 

made.    Castine,  Brooksville  and  Sedgwick,  each  gave  a  major 

vote  against  separation. 
.  7 



In  the  Convention  which  convened  at  Portland,  Oct.  11th, 
1819,  to  frame  a  Constitution,  Hancock  county  was  repre- 
sented as  follows  : 

Deer  Isle,  by  Ignatus  Haskell  and  Asa  Green. 

Bluehill,  by  Andrew  Witham. 

Trenton,  by  Peter  Haynes. 

Sullivan,  by  George  Hinman. 

Gouldsborough,  by  Samuel  Davis. 

Bucksport,  by  Samuel  Little. 

Eden,  by  Nicholas  Thomas,  Jr. 

Orland,  by  Horatio  Mason. 

Ellsworth,  by  Mark  Shepard. 

Castine,  by  William  Abbott. 

Surry,  by  Leonard  Jarvis. 

There  being  defects  in  the  returns  from  Ellsworth,  Orland 
and  Gouldsborough,  the  delegates  therefrom  were  admitted 
by  a  resolve  only. 

Of  the  several  Committees,  the  county  was  represented  as 
follows  : 

"  On  Style  and  Title  of  the  New  State,"  Abbott  of  Castine. 

"To  make  application  to  Congress,"  Jarvis  of  Surry. 

The  votes  given  by  the  towns  now  embraced  within  the 
county,  for  or  against  the  Constitution,  submitted  by  the 
Convention,  were 

Bluehill,                               Yes,  9, 

No,  37. 

Brooksville,                            ' 

«  29, 

"    11. 

Castine,                                   ' 

'   29, 

"      4. 

Deer  Isle,                                ' 

'  22, 

"      1. 

Ellsworth,                               ' 

'  24, 

"      1. 

Gouldsborough,                     ' 

'  14, 

«'    00. 

Orland,                                    ' 

'   22, 

««    00. 

Penobscot,                               ' 

'  32, 

"    00. 

Sedgwick,                               ' 

'  23, 

♦'    24. 

Sullivan,                                 * 

'  29, 

"      1. 


'  30, 

"    00. 

The  returns  from  Eden  and  from  Trenton  were  received 
too  late,  and  were  rejected ;  those  from  Bucksport  omitted 
to  give  the  vote. 


The  first  officers  of  Hancock  County  were :  Judges  of 
Common  Pleas  Court,  Paul  D.  Sargent  of  Sullivan,  Oliver 
Parker  of  Penobscot ;  Sheriff,  Richard  Hunnewell ;  Register 
of  Deeds,  William  Webber;  Judge  of  Probate,  Paul  D.  Sar- 
gent ;  Register  of  Probate,  Jonathan  Eddy,  Penobscot. 

In  1790,  the  county  was  divided  into  two  commercial  dis- 
tricts, known  as  the  Penobscot  and  the  Frenchman's  Bay 
Districts.  John  Lee  was  appointed  Collector  for  the  first, 
and  Meltiah  Jordan  for  the  second.  Deer  Isle  and  Bluehill 
were  made  ports  of  delivery. 

If  the  survey  which  I  now  submit,  shall  have  the  tendency 
to  give  a  swifter  growth  to  any  industry  of  the  county,  I 
shall  not  have  written  in  vain.  How  far  its  statistics  and 
suggestions  may  aid  in  accomplishing  this  desirable  end,  I 
leave  to  the  public  and  the  future  to  decide. 

k^lPv'v  i 

O   i-i